Valency of Selected Rare-Earth Ions in SnTe Matrix
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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments on SnTe crystals doped by Sm, Eu, and Yb were performed to determine the valency of these ions in the SnTe matrix. The analysis of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy valence-band spectra revealed that Eu and Yb are divalent while Sm is trivalent in SnTe. These conclusions were confirmed by studies of the binding energies of core levels (4d-levels of Yb and 3d -levels of Sm and Eu), which are not presented here.
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