PL EN


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2014 | 126 | 3 | 782-787
Article title

Optical and Structural Properties of Bismuth Doped ZnO Thin Films by Sol-Gel Method: Urbach Rule as a Function of Crystal Defects

Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
Bismuth (Bi) doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Bi) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating technique using homogeneous precursor solutions, and effects of Bi doping on the structural and optical properties of ZnO were investigated. The crystalline of ZnO films shifted from polycrystalline nature to amorphous nature with Bi doping. The plane stresses (σ) for hexagonal ZnO and ZnO:Bi crystals were calculated according to the biaxial strain model. The Urbach rule was studied as a function of non-thermal component to the disorder (defects in crystal structures) which is especially observed in the case of non-crystal semiconductors. The calculated Urbach energies and steepness parameters of undoped ZnO and ZnO:Bi films varied between 44.33 meV and 442.67 meV, and 58.3 × 10^{-2} and 5.8 × 10^{-2}, respectively. The Urbach energies of the films increased with an increase in the Bi doping concentration and a great difference was observed for 7.0 mol.% doping. The band gap values of the films exhibited a fluctuated behavior as a result of doping effect.
Keywords
Contributors
author
  • Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Nanotechnology Engineering Rize, 53100, Turkey
author
  • Atatürk University, K. Karabekir Education Faculty, Department of Physics, Erzurum, 25240, Turkey
author
  • Atatürk University, K. Karabekir Education Faculty, Department of Physics, Erzurum, 25240, Turkey
author
  • Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Balikesir University, Balikesir, 10145, Turkey
References
  • [1] D. Behera, B.S. Acharya, J. Lumin. 128, 1577 (2008), doi: 10.1016/j.jlumin.2008.03.006
  • [2] S. Kim, B.S. Kang, F. Ren, K. Ip, Y.W. Heo, D.P. Norton, S.J. Pearton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1698 (2004), doi: 10.1063/1.1664012
  • [3] Ü. Özgür, Y.I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M.A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, H. Morkoç, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005), doi: 10.1063/1.1992666
  • [4] S.L. Sheng, Semiconductor Physical Electronics, 2nd ed., Springer Science-Business Media LLC, New York 2006
  • [5] F. Urbach, Phys. Rev. 92, 1324 (1953), doi: 10.1103/PhysRev.92.1324
  • [6] M. Kranjčec, I.P. Studenyak, M.V. Kurik, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 54 (2009), doi: 10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2008.03.051
  • [7] G.D. Cody, T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, B. Brooks, Y. Goldstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1480 (1981), doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.47.1480
  • [8] M.T. Weller, Inorganic Materials Chemistry, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1997
  • [9] T. Wang, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, M. Wu, X. Sun, F. Lu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 2341 (2011), doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.09.100
  • [10] Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (Powder Diffraction File, card no: 36-1451)
  • [11] Y. Caglar, S. Ilican, M. Caglar, F. Yakuphanoglu, Spectrochim. Acta A 67, 1113 (2007), doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2006.09.035
  • [12] S. Maniv, W.D. Westwood, E. Colombini, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20, 162 (1982), doi: 10.1116/1.571350
  • [13] E.A. Meulenkamp, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 7831 (1999), doi: 10.1021/jp9914673
  • [14] S. John, C. Soukoulis, M.H. Cohen, E.N. Economou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1777 (1986), doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.57.1777
  • [15] H.W. Martienssen, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 2, 257 (1957), doi: 10.1016/0022-3697(57)90070-7
  • [16] Y. Caglar, S. Ilican, M. Caglar, F. Yakuphanoglu, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 53, 372 (2010), doi: 10.1007/s10971-009-2105-0
  • [17] S.K. O'Leary, S. Zukotynski, J.M.J. Perz, Non-Cryst. Solids 210, 249 (1997), doi: 10.1016/S0022-3093(96)00612-6
  • [18] J. Tauc, Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, Plenum Press, New York 1974
  • [19] B.N. Pawar, D.-H. Ham, R.S. Mane, T. Ganesh, B.-W. Cho, S.-H. Han, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 6294 (2008), doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.02.088
  • [20] J.B. Zhong, J.Z. Li, Y.H. Lu, X.Y. He, J. Zeng, W. Hu, Y.C. Shen, Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 4929 (2010), doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2012.01.121
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-appv126n327kz
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.