Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2014 | 125 | 1 | 139-144
Article title

Size Dependence of Magnetic and Optical Properties of Co_3O_4 Nanoparticles

Title variants
Languages of publication
The effect of particle size on the magnetic and optical properties of cobalt oxide Co_3O_4 has been investigated. Single phase Co_3O_4 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation route and their structure was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis. The average crystallite sizes of the nanoparticles as determined from the X-ray diffraction were found to lie in the range of 13 to 59 nm. At room temperature these particles show paramagnetic response and the DC magnetic moment of the samples showed an increasing trend with increasing particle size. Both the antiferromagnetic Néel temperature T_{N} and the low temperature moment depict finite size effects in the AC susceptibility measurements. The optical absorption studies show that there are two direct band gaps in Co_3O_4, the main energy band gap and a sub-band located inside the main energy gap. The values of these energy band gaps for the 45 nm particles were determined to be 3.15 and 1.76 eV, respectively. The direct band gap in these particles clearly shows a blue shift with decreasing size attributable to the quantum confinement effect.
  • Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • [1] S. Jacobs, C.P. Bean, in: Magnetism, Vol. III, Eds. G.T. Rado, H. Suhl, Academic Press, New York 1963, p. 294
  • [2] R.W. Chantrell, K. O'Grady, in: doi: 10.1007/978-94-015-8263-6_3., Applied Magnetism, Ed. R. Gerber, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Netherlands 1994, p. 113
  • [3] L. Néel, in: doi: 10.1063/1.3050729, Low Temperature Physics, Eds. C. Dewitt, B. Dreyfus, P.G. de Gennes, Gordon and Breach, New York 1962, p. 413
  • [4] M.M. Ibrahim, S. Darwish, M. Seehra, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.51.2955, Phys. Rev. B 51, 2955 (1995)
  • [5] S. Gider, D. Awschalom, T. Douglas, S. Mann, M. Chaparala, doi: 10.1126/science.7701343, Science 268, 77 (1995)
  • [6] J. Tejada, X.X. Zhang, E. del Barco, J.M. Hernández, E.M. Chudnovsky, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.79.1754, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1754 (1997)
  • [7] B. Barbara, E.M. Chudnovsky, doi: 10.1016/0375-9601(90)90682-E, Phys. Lett. A 145, 205 (1990)
  • [8] S. Takada, M. Fujii, S. Kohiki, T. Babasaki, H. Deguchi, M. Mitome, M. Oku, doi: 10.1021/nl015538x., Nano Lett. 1, 379 (2001)
  • [9] A. Makhlouf, doi: 10.1016/S0304-8853(02)00050-1, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 246, 184 (2002)
  • [10] S. Thota, A. Kumar, J. Kumar, doi: 10.1016/j.mseb.2009.06.002, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 164, 30 (2009)
  • [11] D. Barreca, C. Massignan, S. Daolio, M. Fabrizio, C. Piccirillo, L. Armelao, E. Tondello, doi: 10.1063/1.2817481., Chem. Mater. 13, 588 (2001)
  • [12] A. Gulino, P. Dapporto, P. Rossi, I. Fragala, doi: 10.1088/0953-8984/20/01/015218, Chem. Mater. 15, 3748 (2003)
  • [13] K.V. Rao, C.S. Sunandana, doi: 10.1016/0022-3697(64)90156-8, Solid State Commun. 148, 32 (2008)
  • [14] L. He, C. Chen, N. Wang, W. Zhou, L. Guo, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.76.1743, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 103911 (2007)
  • [15] P. Dutta, M.S. Seehra, S. Thota, J. Kumar, doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.67.054408, J. Phys., Condens. Matter 20, 015218 (2008)
  • [16] W.L. Roth, doi: 10.1063/1.2163839, J. Phys., Chem. Solids 25, 1 (1964)
  • [17] T. Ambrose, C.L. Chien, doi: 10.1016/S0304-8853(99)00347-9, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1743 (1996)
  • [18] Y.J. Tang, D.J. Smith, B.L. Zink, F. Hellman, A.E. Berkowitz, doi: 10.1016/j.susc.2008.12.036., Phys. Rev. B 67, 054408 (2003)
  • [19] A.D. Resnick, K. Gilmore, Y.U. Idzerda, M.T. Klem, M. Allen, T. Douglas, E. Arenholz, M. Young, doi: 10.1021/cm001041x., J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08Q501 (2006)
  • [20] R.H. Kodama, doi: 10.1021/cm034210x, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 200, 359 (1999)
  • [21] X.L. Xu, Z.H. Chen, Y. Li, W.K. Chen, J.Q. Li, doi: 10.1021/jp048016p, Surf. Sci. 603, 653 (2009)
  • [22] X. Wang, X. Chen, L. Gao, H. Zheng, Z. Zhang, Y. Qian, doi: 10.1149/1.2411104, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 16401 (2004)
  • [23] R.K. Willardson, A.C. Beer, doi: 10.1021/ed086p810.2, Semiconductor and Semimetals: Optical Properties of III-V Compounds, Academic Press, New York 1996
  • [24] L.H.J. Lajunen, P. Peramaki, Spectrochemical Analysis by Atomic Absorption and Emission, Royal Society of Chemistry, UK 2004
  • [25] J. Gao, Y. Zhao, W. Yang, J. Tian, F. Guan, Y. Ma, doi: 10.1016/j.ssc.2008.07.020, J. Uni. Sci. Tech. (Beijing) 10, 54 (2003)
  • [26] F. Gu, C. Li, Y. Hu, L. Zhang, doi: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.03.040, J. Cryst. Growth 304, 369 (2007)
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.