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Growth of bacterial phytopathogens in animal manures

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Animal manures are routinely applied to agricultural lands to improve crop yield, but the possibility to spread bacterial phytopathogens through field fertilization has not been considered yet. We monitored 49 cattle, horse, swine, sheep or chicken manure samples collected in 14 Polish voivodeships for the most important plant pathogenic bacteria - Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Erwinia amylovora (Eam), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms) and Dickeya sp. (Dsp). All of the tested animal fertilizers were free of these pathogens. Subsequently, the growth dynamics of Pba, Pcc, Rsol, and Xcc in cattle, horse, swine, sheep and chicken manures sterilized either by autoclaving or filtration was evaluated. The investigated phytopathogens did not exhibit any growth in the poultry manure. However, the manure filtrates originating from other animals were suitable for microbial growth, which resulted in the optical density change of 0.03-0.22 reached within 26 h (48 h Rsol, 120 h Xcc), depending on bacterial species and the manure source. Pcc and Pba multiplied most efficiently in the cattle manure filtrate. These bacteria grew faster than Rsol and Xcc in all the tested manure samples, both the filtrates and the autoclaved semi-solid ones. Though the growth dynamics of investigated strains in different animal fertilizers was unequal, all of the tested bacterial plant pathogens were proven to use cattle, horse, swine and sheep manures as the sources of nutrients. These findings may contribute to further research on the alternative routes of spread of bacterial phytopathogens, especially because of the fact that the control of pectionolytic bacteria is only based on preventive methods.
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  • Department of Biotechnology, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
  • Department of Biotechnology, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
  • Department of Biotechnology, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
  • Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
  • Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
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