Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2016 | 63 | 1 | 153-159
Article title

Quaternary ammonium biocides as antimicrobial agents protecting historical wood and brick

Title variants
Languages of publication
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used in disinfection of water, surfaces and instruments as well as in textile, leather and food industries because of their relatively low toxicity, broad antimicrobial spectrum, non-volatility and chemical stability. Due to these advantages, QACs are also used in restoration and can be applied on historical material. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of biocides based on quaternary ammonium salts and containing various excipients in the protection of historical materials against microbial growth. The study determined the antimicrobial activity of three biocides against bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus muralis, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians, and moulds: Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium citreonigrum, Cladosporium cladosporioides I, Acremonium strictum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium cladosporioides II, all isolated from historical wood and brick. Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians bacteria, and Cladosporium cladosporioides I and Acremonium strictum moulds showed high sensitivity to quaternary ammonium biocides. Historical wood can be effectively disinfected by three applications of biocide A (30% v/v) containing dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), citric acid, propiconazole and propanol. Disinfection of historical brick can be carried out by three applications of 6% v/v solutions of biocide B (based on DDAC and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid - EDTA) or biocide C (containing a non-ionic surfactant, DDAC and EDTA). Effective protection of historical building materials against microbial growth for a period of seven days can be achieved by the application of biocide A (30% v/v) on the wood surface and biocide B (6% v/v) on the brick surface.
Physical description
  • Al-Bakri AG, Othman G, Bustanji Y (2009) The assessment of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of aspirin, EDTA and aspirin-EDTA combination and their effectiveness as antibiofilm agents. J Appl Microbiol 107: 280-286.
  • Dubois JW, Ruddick JN (1998) The fungal degradation of quaternary ammonium compounds in wood. International Research Group (IRG) on Wood Protection.
  • Kalawate A, Pandey CN (2012) An antimycotic study of propiconazole for mould inhibition on rubber wood. Int J Fundam Appl Sci 1: 24-26.
  • Karbowska-Berent J, Kozielec T, Jarmiłko J, Brycki B (2011) Possible application of quaternary ammonium salts for disinfection of paper based objects. Restaurator 32: 223-246.
  • Koziróg A, Otlewska A, Piotrowska M, Rajkowska K, Nowicka-Krawczyk P, Hachułka M, Wolski GJ, Gutarowska B, Kunicka-Styczyńska A, Libudzisz Z, Żakowska Z, Żydzik-Białek A (2014) Colonising organisms as a biodegradation factor affecting historical wood materials at the former concentration camp of Auschwitz II - Birkenau. Int Biodeter Biodegr 86: 171-178.
  • Koziróg A, Żakowska Z (2014) What determines the effective disinfection? In Protection of buildings against moisture and biological corrosion. Skowroński W, ed, 10, t IX, pp 46-51. Polskie Stowarzyszenie Mykologów Budownictwa, Wrocław (in Polish).
  • Lipińska-Ojrzanowska A, Walusiak-Skorupa J (2014) Quaternary ammonium compounds - new occupational hazards. Med Pr 65: 675-682.
  • Maillard JY (2002) Bacterial target sites for biocide action. J Appl Microbiol Suppl 92: 16S-27S.
  • McDonnell G, Russell AD (1999) Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev 12: 147-179.
  • Obłąk E, Gamian A (2010) The biological activity of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs). Postepy Hig Med Dosw 64: 201-211 (in Polish).
  • Picheansathian W (2004) A systematic review on the effectiveness of alcohol-based solutions for hand hygiene. Int J Nurs Pract 10: 3-9.
  • Piotrowska M, Otlewska A, Rajkowska K, Koziróg A, Hachułka M, Nowicka-Krawczyk P, Wolski GJ, Gutarowska B, Kunicka-Styczyńska A, Żydzik-Białek A (2014) Abiotic Determinants of the historical buildings biodeterioration in the former Auschwitz II - Birkenau concentration and extermination camp. Plos One 9: e109402.
  • Raghavendra T (2002) Neuromuscular blocking drugs: discovery and development. J R Soc Med 95: 363-367.
  • Rajkowska K, Otlewska A, Koziróg A, Piotrowska M, Nowicka-Krawczyk P, Hachułka M, Wolski GJ, Kunicka-Styczyńska A, Gutarowska B, Żydzik-Białek A (2014) Assessment of biological colonization of historic buildings in the former Auschwitz II - Birkenau concentration camp. Ann Microbiol 64: 799-808.
  • Regulation (EU) no 528/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2012 concerning the making available on the market and use of biocidal products. Official Journal of the European Union L 167/1, 27.6.2012.
  • Register of Biocidal Products, Part III - containing a list of biocidal products which have been granted a marketing authorization (Article 54 of the law on biocidal products) .
  • Rucka M, Oświęcimska M, Witek S (1983) New biocides for cooling water treatment. III. Quaternary ammonium salts derivatives of glycine esters. Environ Prot Eng 9: 25-31.
  • Russell AD, McDonnell G (2000) Concentration: a major factor in studying biocidal action. J Hosp Infect 44: 1-3.
  • Sterflinger K, Piñar G (2013) Microbial deterioration of cultural heritage and works of art - tilting at windmills? Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97: 9637-9646.
  • Stupara M, Grbića ML, Džamića A, Unkovića N, Ristićb M, Jelikićc A, Vukojevića J (2014) Antifungal activity of selected essential oils and biocide benzalkonium chloride against the fungi isolated from cultural heritage objects. S Afr J Bot 93: 118-124.
  • Tang R, Jin L, Mou C, Yin J, Bai S, Hu D, Wu J, Yang S, Song B (2013) Synthesis, antifungal and antibacterial activity for novel amide derivatives containing a triazole moiety. Chem Cent J 7: 30-36.
  • Tezel U, Pavlostathis SG (2011) Role of quaternary ammonium compounds on antimicrobial resistance in the environment. In Antimicrobial resistance in the environment. Keen PL, Montforts MHMM, eds, pp 349-388. Wiley-Blackwell, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
  • Tischer M, Pradel G, Ohlsen K, Holzgrabe U (2012) Quaternary ammonium salts and their antimicrobial potential: targets or nonspecific interactions? Chem Med Chem 7: 22-31. /10.1002/cmdc.201100404.
  • Trujillo R, Laible N (1970) Reversible inhibition of spore germination by alcohols. Appl Microbiol 20: 620-623.
  • White DG, McDermott PF (2001) Biocides, drug resistance and microbial evolution. Curr Opin Microbiol 4: 313-317. /10.1016/S1369-5274(00)00209-5.
  • Xiao YH, Chen JH, Fang M, Xing XD, Wang H, Wang YJ, Li F (2008) Antibacterial effects of three experimental quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) monomers on bacteria associated with oral infections. J Oral Sci 50: 323-327.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.