Analysis of uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilm formation under different growth conditions
Languages of publication
The ability to form different types of biofilm enables bacteria to survive in a harsh or toxic environment. Different structures of biofilms are related to different surfaces and environment of bacterial growth. The aim of this study was analysis of the biofilm formation of 115 clinical uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains under different growth conditions: surface for biofilm formation, medium composition and time of incubation. The biofilm formation after 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h was determined spectrophotometrically (A531) after crystal violet staining and it was correlated with bacterial growth (A600). The live and dead cells in biofilm structures was also observed on the glass surface by an epi-fluorescence microscope. Additionally, the presence of rpoS, sdiA and rscA genes was analyzed. The statistical significance was estimated by paired T-test. The observed biofilms were different for each particular strain. The biofilm formation was the highest in the rich medium (LB) after 24 h and its level hasn't changed in time. When biofilm level was compared to bacterial growth (relative biofilm) - it was higher in a minimal medium in comparison to enriched medium. These results suggest that most of the bacterial cells prefer to live in a biofilm community under the difficult environmental conditions. Moreover, biofilm formation on polyurethane surface did not correlate with biofilm formation on glass. It suggests that mechanisms of biofilm formation can be correlated with other bacterial properties. This phenomenon may explain different types of biofilm formation among one species and even one pathotype - uropathogenic Escherichia coli.
- Adams JL, McLean RJ (1999) Impact of rpoS deletion on Escherichia coli biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol 65: 4285-4287.
- Adamus-Bialek W, Wojtasik A, Majchrzak M, Sosnowski M, Parniewski P (2009) (CGG)4-based PCR as a novel tool for discrimination of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains: comparison with enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR. J Clin Microbiol 47: 3937-3944.
- Bassler BL (1999) How bacteria talk to each other: regulation of gene expression by quorum sensing. Curr Opin Microbiol 2: 582-587.
- Bergsten G, Wullt B, Svanborg C (2005) Escherichia coli, fimbriae, bacterial persistence and host response induction in the human urinary tract. Int J Med Microbiol 295: 487-502.
- Busscher HJ, Van Der Mei Rb (1995) Initial microbial adhesion is a determinant for the strength of biofilm adhesion. FEMS Microbiol Lett 128: 229-234.
- Clermont O, Christenson JK, Denamur E, Gordon DM (2013) The Clermont Escherichia coli phylo-typing method revisited: improvement of specificity and detection of new phylo-groups. Environ Microbiol Rep 5: 58-65.
- Collet A, Vilain S, Cosette P, Junter GA, Jouenne T, Phillips RS, Di Martino P (2007) Protein expression in Escherichia coli S17-1 biofilms: impact of indole. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 91: 71-85.
- Corona-Izquierdo FP and Membrillo-Hernandez J (2002) A mutation in rpoS enhances biofilm formation in Escherichia coli during exponential phase of growth. FEMS Microbiol Lett 211: 105-110.
- Costerton JW (1999) Introduction to biofilm. Int J Antimicrob Agents 11: 217-221.
- Costerton JW, Cheng KJ, Geesey GG, Ladd TI, Nickel JC, Dasgupta M, Marrie TJ (1987) Bacterial biofilms in nature and disease. Annu Rev Microbiol 41: 435-464.
- Dunne WM (2002) Bacterial adhesion: seen any good biofilms lately? Clin Microbiol Rev 15: 155-166.
- Elena SF, Whittam TS, Winkworth CL, Riley MA, Lenski RE (2005) Genomic divergence of Escherichia coli strains: evidence for horizontal transfer and variation in mutation rates. Int Microbiol 8: 271-278.
- Ferrieres L, Hancock V, Klemm P (2007) Biofilm exclusion of uropathogenic bacteria by selected asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains. Microbiology 153: 1711-1719.
- Ganesh CK, Anand SK (1998) Significance of microbial biofilms in food industry a review. Int J Food Microbiol 42: 9-27.
- Goldberg J (2002) Biofilms and antibiotic resistance: a genetic linkage. Trends Microbiol 10: 264.
- Hannan TJ, Totsika M, Mansfield KJ, Moore KH, Schembri MA, Hultgren SJ (2012) Host-pathogen checkpoints and population bottlenecks in persistent and intracellular uropathogenic E. coli bladder infection. FEMS Microbiol Rev 36: 616-648.
- Herzer PJ, Inouye S, Inouye M, Whittam TS (1990) Phylogenetic distribution of branched RNA-linked multicopy single-stranded DNA among natural isolates of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 172: 6175-6181.
- Horn H, Lackner S (2014) Modeling of biofilm systems: a review. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 146: 53-76.
- Ito A, May T, Kawata K, Okabe S (2007) Significance of rpoS during maturation of Escherichia coli biofilms. Biotechnol Bioeng 99: 1462-1471.
- Johnson JR (1991) Virulence factors in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 4: 80-128.
- Justice SS, Hung C, Theriot JA, Fletcher DA, Anderson GG, Footer MJ, Hultgren SJ (2004) Differentiation and developmental pathways of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urinary tract pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci 101: 1333-1338. www.pnas.orgcgidoi10.1073pnas.0308125100.
- Lewandowski Z, Walser G, Characklis W (1991) Reaction kinetics in biofilms. Biotechnol Bioeng 38: 877-882.
- Liu Y, Yang S, Xu H, (2004) The influence of cell and substratum surface hydrophobicities on microbial attachment. J Biotechnol 110: 251-256.
- Krasowska A, Sigler K (2014) How microorganisms use hydrophobicity and what does this mean for human needs? Front Cell Infect Microbiol 4: 112.
- Kreft JU (2004) Biofilms promote altruism. Microbiology 150: 2751-2760.
- Ulett GC, Mabbett AN, Fung KC, Webb RI, Schembri MA (2007) The role of F9 fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in biofilm formation. Microbiology 153: 2321-2331.
- Miller MB, Bassler BL (2001) Quorum sensing in bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 55: 165-199.
- Miyazaki J, Ba-Thein W, Kumao T, Yasuoka MO, Akaza H, Hayshi H (2002) Type 1, P and S fimbriae, and afimbrial adhesin I are not essential for uropathogenic Escherichia coli to adhere to and invade bladder epithelial cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 33: 23-26.
- Picioreanu C, Kreft JU, Klausen M, Haagensen JA, Tolker-Nielsen T, Molin S (2007) Microbial motility involvement in biofilm structure formation - a 3D modelling study. Water Sci Technol 55: 337-343.
- Prigent-Combaret C, Vidal O, Dorel C, Lejeune P (1999) Abiotic surface sensing and biofilm-dependent regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 181: 5993-6002.
- Pupo GM, Karaolis DK, Lan R, Reeves PR (1997) Evolutionary relationships among pathogenic and nonpathogenic Escherichia coli strains inferred from multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and mdh sequence studies. Infect Immun 65: 2685-2692.
- Ranjit DK, Young KD (2013) The Rcs Stress response and accessory envelope proteins are required for de novo generation of cell shape in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 195: 2452-2462.
- Ramos NL, Sekikubo M, Dzung DT, Kosnopfel C, Kironde F, Mirembe F, Brauner A (2012) Uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from pregnant women in different countries. J Clin Microbiol 50: 3569-3574.
- Reisner A, Haagensen JA, Schembri MA, Zechner EL, Molin S (2003) Development and maturation of Escherichia coli K-12 biofilms. Mol Microbiol 48: 933-946.
- Schembri MA, Kjaergaard K, Klemm P (2003) Global gene expression in Escherichia coli biofilms. Mol Microbiol 48: 253-267.
- Shirtliff ME, Mader JT, Camper AK (2000) Molecular interactions in biofilms. Chem Biol 9: 859-871.
- Sims GE, Kim SH (2011) Whole-genome phylogeny of Escherichia coli/Shigella group by feature frequency profiles (FFPs). Proc Natl Acad Sci 108: 8329-8334.
- Spiers AJ, Bohannon J, Gehrig SM, Rainey PB (2003) Biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface by the Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 wrinkly spreader requires an acetylated form of cellulose. Mol Microbiol 50: 15-27.
- Stewart PS, Costerton JW (2001) Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in biofilms. Lancet 358: 135-138.
- Torzewska A, Różalski A (2015) Various intensity of Proteus mirabilis-induced crystallization resulting from the changes in the mineral composition of urine. Acta Biochim Pol 62: 127-132.
- Travis JW, Richard RK, Matthew AM (2008) Origins and virulence mechanisms of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Exp Mol Pathol 85: 11-19.
- Wäsche S, Horn H, Hempel DC (2002) Influence of growth conditions on biofilm development and mass transfer at the bulk/biofilm interface. Water Resi 36: 4775-4784.
- Wei J, Lee JM, Smulski DR, LaRossa RA (2001) Global impact of sdiA amplification revealed by comprehensive gene expression profiling of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 183: 2265-2272.
- Wiles TJ, Bower JM, Redd MJ, Mulvey MA (2009) Use of zebrafish to probe the divergent virulence potentials and toxin requirements of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. PLoS Pathog 5: e1000697.
- Vieira HL, Freire P, Arraiano CM (2004) Effect of Escherichia coli Morphogene bolA on Biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol 70: 5682-5684.
- Zalewska-Piątek BM, Wilkanowicz SI, Piątek RJ, Kur JW (2009) Biofilm formation as a virulence determinant of uropathogenic Escherichia coli Dr+strains. Pol J Microbiol 58: 223-229.
- Zhang W, Sun J, Ding W, Lin J, Tian R, Lu L, Liu X, Shen X, Qian PY (2015) Extracellular matrix-associated proteins form an integral and dynamic system during Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 5: 40.
Publication order reference