Response of vitamins A, E, hematological and serum biochemical markers in Crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) exposed to environmental Pb2+ and Cd2+
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Toxicity of Pb2+ and Cd2+ is a widespread issue in the world; however, few studies have been conducted to understand their effect at environmentally realistic concentration in a mixture. In the present study, Crucian carp was exposed to Pb2+ (30 µg·l-1), Cd2+ (100 µg·l-1) and their mixture (30+100 µg·l-1) for 96 h and 21 d period to assess changes in the liver and muscle vitamin A and E content, and hematological and serum biochemical parameters. The results indicated significant decline in the level of antioxidant vitamins A, E and alterations in the hematological and serum biochemical indices. The toxicity revealed anemia, impairment of the liver and kidney with evident responses after 21 d exposure due to additive effect of Pb2+ and Cd2+ in mixture. Moreover, the differential response of vitamins A, E and blood parameters to low levels of waterborne Pb2+ and Cd2+ in freshwater fish can be used as biomarkers for monitoring contamination of aquatic environment.
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