Studies on the antioxidant properties of extracts from the roots and shoots of two Scutellaria species in human blood plasma
Languages of publication
We determined the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from the shoots and roots of Scutellaria species (S. altissima and S. alpina) against the action of strong oxidants: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2+Fe2+ (donor of hydroxyl radicals) on plasma proteins and lipids. Lipid peroxidation in human plasma was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Protein oxidation was measured by quantitation of thiol group. We observed that the extracts (5-50 µg ml-1) containing phenolic compounds from both Scutellaria species distinctly reduced oxidation of lipids and proteins in human plasma treated with H2O2. These results also indicated that the extracts have a protective effect against oxidative damage to the human plasma lipids and proteins by induced hydroxyl radical. The main components of the plant materials analysed were flavonoids, present as aglycones (luteolin) or glycosides (cynaroside, baicalin, wogonoside). In all of the extracts, the phenylethanoid verbascoside was also found. The properties of the tested plant extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterised commercial antioxidative polyphenolic extract from the berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox®). The comparative studies indicated that the analysed plant extracts were comparable to or even more effective in reducing the oxidation processes than the A. melanocarpa extract. The present study suggests that natural extracts from S. altissima and S. alpina have antioxidant activities and, therefore, may be beneficial in the prevention of diseases related to oxidant stress, such as cancer, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases.
- Department of Biology and Pharmaceutical Botany, Medical University, Łódź, Poland
- Department of Biology and Pharmaceutical Botany, Medical University, Łódź, Poland
- Department of General Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland
- Ando Y, Steiner M (1973a) Sulfhydryl and disulfide groups of platelet membranes: determination of disulphide groups. Biochim Biophys Acta 311: 26-37.
- Ando Y, Steiner M (1973b) Sulfhydryl and disulfide groups of platelet membranes: determination of sulphydryl groups. Biochim Biophys Acta 311: 38-44.
- Beshko NP, Gella EV, Litvinenko VI, Kovalev IP, Gordienko VG (1975) Flavonoids of the roots of Scutellaria altissima. Chem Nat Compd 11: 533-534.
- de Boer JG, Quiney B, Walter PB, Thomas C, Hodgson K, Murch SJ, Saxena PK (2005) Protection against aflatoxin-B1-induced liver mutagenesis by Scutellaria baicalensis. Mutat Res 578: 15-22.
- Buxiang S, Fukuhara M (1997) Effects of co-administration of butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole and flavonoid on the activation of mutagens and drug-metabolizing enzymes in mice. Toxicology 122: 61-72.
- Chang WH, Chem CH, Lu FJ (2002) Different effects of baicalein, baicalin and wogonin on mitochondrial function, glutathione content and cell cycle progression in human hepatoma cell lines. Planta Med 68: 128-132.
- Chen Y, Lu N, Ling,Y, Gao Y, Wang L, Sun Y, Qi Q, Feng F, Liu W, You Q, Kim EH (2009) Anti-inflammatory effects of Scutellaria baicalensis extract via suppression of immune modulators and MAP kinase signaling molecules. J Ethnopharmacol 126: 320-31.
- Díaz AM, Abad MJ, Fernández L, Silván AM, DeSantos J, Bermejo P (2004) Phenylethanoid glycosides from Scrophularia scorodonia: in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Life Sci 75: 1149-1157.
- Gao Q (2009) Wogonoside inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo via toll-like receptor 4 signal transduction. Toxicology 259: 10-17.
- Gao Z, Huang K, Yang X, Xu H (1999) Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of flavonoids extracted from the radix of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Biochim Biophys Acta 1472: 643-650.
- Georgiev M, Pastore S, Lulli D, Alipieva K, Kostyuk V, Potapovich A, Panetta M, Korkina L (2012) Verbascum xanthophoeniceum-derived phenylethanoid glycosides are potent inhibitors of inflammatory chemokines in dormant and interferon-gamma stimulated human keratinocytes. J Ethnopharmacol 144: 754-760.
- Grzegorczyk-Karolak I, Kuźma Ł, Wysokińska H (2013) The use of long-term Scutellaria altissima callus cultures for shoot regeneration, production of bioactive metabolites and micropropagation. J Med Plants Res 7: 3003-3313.
- Halliwell B, Gutteridge J (1989) Free radicals in biology and medicine. 2nd edn, Clarendon, Oxford. pp 22-65.
- Islam MN, Downey F, Ng CKY (2011) Comparative analysis of bioactive phytochemicals from Scutellari baicalensis, Scutellaria lateriflora, Scutellaria racemosa, Scutellaria tomentosa and Scutellaria wrightii by LC-DAD-MS. Metabolomics 7: 446-453.
- Kernan MR, Amarquaye A, Chen JL, Chan J, Sesin DF, Parkinson N, Ye Z, Barrett M, Bales C, Stoddart CA, Sloan B, Blanc P, Limbach C, Mrisho S, Rozhon EJ (1998) Antiviral phenylpropanoid glycosides from the medicinal plant Markhamia lutea. J Nat Prod 61: 564-570.
- Kędzierska M, Olas B, Wachowicz B, Stochmal A, Oleszek W, Jeziorski A, Piekarski J, Głowacki R (2009) An extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa modulates the generation of superoxide anion radicals in blood platelets from breast cancer patients. Planta Med 75: 1405-1409.
- Kikuchi Y, Miyaichi Y, Yamaguchi Y, Kizu H, Tomimori T, Vetschera K (1991) Studies on the constituents of Scutellaria species, XIV. On the constituents of the roots and the leaves of Scutellaria alpina L. Chem Pharm Bull 39: 199-201.
- Kitamura K, Honda M, Yoshizaki H, Yamamoto S, Nakane H, Fukushima M, Ono K, Tokunaga T (1998) Baicalin, an inhibitor of HIV-1 production in vitro. Antiviral Res 37: 131-140.
- Kyriakopoulou I, Magiatis P, Skaltsounis AL, Aligiannis N, Harvala C (2001) Samioside, a new phenylethanoid glycoside with free-radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities from Phlomis samia. J Nat Prod 64: 1095-1097.
- Lee JY, Chang EJ, Kim HJ, Park JH, Choi SW (2002) Antioxidative flavonoids from leaves of Carthamus tinctorius. Arch Pharm Res 25: 313-319.
- Lim BO (2003) Effects of wogonin, wogonoside, and 3,5,7,2',6'-pentahydroxyflavone on chemical mediator production in peritoneal educate cells and immunoglobulin E of rat mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes. J Ethnopharmacol 84: 23-29.
- Olas B, Wachowicz B, Nowak P, Kędzierska M, Tomczak A, Stochmal A, Oleszek W, Jeziorski A, Piekarski J (2008) Studies on antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa on blood platelets. J Physiol Pharmacol 59: 823-835.
- Pettit GR, Numata A, Takemura T, Ode RH, Narula AS, Schmidt JM, Cragg GM, Pase CP (1990) Antineoplastic agents, 107. Isolation of acteoside and isoacteoside from Castilleja linariaefolia. J Nat Prod 53: 456-458.
- Prescott TA, Veitch NC, Simmonds MS (2011) Direct inhibition of calcineurin by caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides from Teucrium chamaedrys and Nepeta cataria. J Ethnopharmacol 137: 1306-1310.
- Pulido R, Bravo L, Saura-Calixto F (2000) Antioxidant activity of dietary phenols are determined by a modified ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay. J Agric Food Chem 48: 3396-3402.
- Rice-Evans CA, Diplock AT, Symons MCR (1991) Techniques in free radical research. Elsevier, Amsterdam, London, New York, Tokyo.
- Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G (1996) Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radical Biol Med 20: 933-956.
- Rojkind M, Dominguez-Rosales JA, Nieto N, Greenwel P (2002) Role of hydrogen peroxide and oxidative stress in healing responses. Cell Mol Life Sci 59: 1872-1891.
- Sasaki YF, Kawaguchi S, Kamaya A, Ohshita M, Kabasawa K, Iwama K, Taniguchi K, Tsuda S (2002) The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food additives. Mutat Res 519: 103-119.
- Shang XF, He XR, He XY, Li MX, Zhang RX, Fan PC, Zhang QL, Jia ZP (2010) The genus Scutellaria an ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review. J Ethnopharmacol 128: 279-313.
- Shoyama Y, Matsumoto M, Nishioka I (1986) Four caffeoyl glycosides from callus tissue of Rehmannia glutinosa. Phytochemistry 25: 1633-1636.
- Wachowicz B (1984) Adenine nucleotides in thrombocytes of birds. Cell Biochem Funct 2: 167-170.
- Zhao Y, Li H, Gao Z, Gong Y, Xu H (2006) Effects of flavonoids extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi on hemin-nitrite-H202 induced liver injury. Eur J Pharmacol 536: 192-199.
Publication order reference