Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2014 | 61 | 4 | 639-649
Article title

Cyclooxygenase pathways

Title variants
Languages of publication
This review compiles the current knowledge on the effects of prostanoids - arachidonic acid metabolites - on their own synthesis, activity and degradation. Interaction mechanisms between the receptors for the relevant compounds are presented, in particular with regard to the cooperation between a thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin I2 receptors. The questions of desensitization and internalization of receptors are discussed. The stages of the inflammatory response and tumor progression are analyzed against the background of the disruption of the synthesis of prostanoids. Special attention is given to the significance of 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 in the regulation of the synthesis of prostanoids and its role as an anti-inflammatory agent. Ultimately, therapeutic approaches as used in various treatments are discussed in the light of the available knowledge.
Physical description
  • Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
  • Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
  • Department of Biochemistry and Human Nutrition, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
  • Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
  • Abramovitz M, Adam M, Boie Y, Carrière M, Denis D, Godbout C, Lamontagne S, Rochette C, Sawyer N, Tremblay NM, Belley M, Gallant M, Dufresne C, Gareau Y, Ruel R, Juteau H, Labelle M, Ouimet N, Metters KM (2000) The utilization of recombinant prostanoid receptors to determine the affinities and selectivities of prostaglandins and related analogs. Biochim Biophys Acta 1483: 285-293.
  • Abera AB, Sales KJ, Catalano RD, Katz AA, Jabbour HN (2010) EP2 receptor mediated cAMP release is augmented by PGF 2 alpha activation of the FP receptor via the calcium-calmodulin pathway. Cell Signal 22: 71-79.
  • Ashok V, Dash C, Rohan TE, Sprafka JM, Terry PD (2011) Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and breast cancer risk. Breast 20: 66-70.
  • Badawi AF, Badr MZ (2003) Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and levels of prostaglandin E2 and 15-deoxy-delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 in human breast cancer and metastasis. Int J Cancer 103: 84-90.
  • Bosetti F, Langenbach R, Weerasinghe GR (2004) Prostaglandin E2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2 expression are decreased in the cyclooxygenase-2-deficient mouse brain despite compensatory induction of cyclooxygenase-1 and Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A2. J Neurochem 91: 1389-1397.
  • Bosetti F, Weerasinghe GR (2003) The expression of brain cyclooxygenase-2 is down-regulated in the cytosolic phospholipase A2 knockout mouse. J Neurochem 87: 1471-1477.
  • Boulet L, Ouellet M, Bateman KP, Ethier D, Percival MD, Riendeau D, Mancini JA, Méthot N (2004) Deletion of microsomal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthase-1 reduces inducible and basal PGE2 production and alters the gastric prostanoid profile. J Biol Chem 279: 23229-23237.
  • Boyault S, Bianchi A, Moulin D, Morin S, Francois M, Netter P, Terlain B, Bordji K (2004) 15-Deoxy-delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) inhibits IL-1beta-induced IKK enzymatic activity and IkappaBalpha degradation in rat chondrocytes through a PPARgamma-independent pathway. FEBS Lett 572: 33-40.
  • Brenneis C, Coste O, Schmidt R, Angioni C, Popp L, Nusing RM, Becker W, Scholich K, Geisslinger G (2008) Consequences of altered eicosanoid patterns for nociceptive processing in mPGES-1-deficient mice. J Cell Mol Med 12: 639-648.
  • Catella-Lawson F, McAdam B, Morrison BW, Kapoor S, Kujubu D, Antes L, Lasseter KC, Quan H, Gertz BJ, FitzGerald GA (1999) Effects of specific inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 on sodium balance, hemodynamics, and vasoactive eicosanoids. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 289: 735-741.
  • Caughey GE, Cleland LG, Gamble JR, James MJ (2001) Up-regulation of endothelial cyclooxygenase-2 and prostanoid synthesis by platelets. Role of thromboxane A2. J Biol Chem 276: 37839-37845.
  • Chell SD, Witherden IR, Dobson RR, Moorghen M, Herman AA, Qualtrough D, Williams AC, Paraskeva C (2006) Increased EP4 receptor expression in colorectal cancer progression promotes cell growth and anchorage independence. Cancer Res 66: 3106-3113.
  • Choi SH, Langenbach R, Bosetti F (2006) Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 enzymes differentially regulate the brain upstream NF-kappa B pathway and downstream enzymes involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis. J Neurochem 98: 801-811.
  • Chow KB, Jones RL, Wise H (2003) Protein kinase A-dependent coupling of mouse prostacyclin receptors to Gi is cell-type dependent. Eur J Pharmacol 474: 7-13.
  • Chu KM, Chow KB, Wong YH, Wise H (2004) Prostacyclin receptor-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Cell Signal 16: 477-486.
  • Davoine F, Sim A, Tang C, Fisher S, Ethier C, Puttagunta L, Wu Y, McGaw WT, Yu D, Cameron L, Adamko DJ, Moqbel R (2013) Eosinophils in human oral squamous carcinoma; role of prostaglandin D2. J Inflamm (Lond) 10: 4.
  • Debey S, Meyer-Kirchrath J, Schrör K (2003) Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by iloprost in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Role of transcription factors CREB and ICER. Biochem Pharmacol 65: 979-988.
  • Desai S, April H, Nwaneshiudu C, Ashby B (2000) Comparison of agonist-induced internalization of the human EP2 and EP4 prostaglandin receptors: role of the carboxyl terminus in EP4 receptor sequestration. Mol Pharmacol 58: 1279-1286.
  • Díaz-Muñoz MD, Osma-García IC, Fresno M, Iñiguez MA (2012) Involvement of PGE2 and the cAMP signalling pathway in the up-regulation of COX-2 and mPGES-1 expression in LPS-activated macrophages. Biochem J 443: 451-461.
  • Elander N, Ungerbäck J, Olsson H, Uematsu S, Akira S, Söderkvist P (2008) Genetic deletion of mPGES-1 accelerates intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min/+) mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 372: 249-253.
  • Faour WH, He Y, He QW, de Ladurantaye M, Quintero M, Mancini A, Di Battista JA (2001) Prostaglandin E(2) regulates the level and stability of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in interleukin-1 beta-treated human synovial fibroblasts. J Biol Chem 276: 31720-31731.
  • Flannery PJ, Spurney RF (2002) Desensitization of the mouse thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (Grks). Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 70: 79-90.
  • Foley JF, Kelley LP, Kinsella BT (2001) Prostaglandin D(2) receptor-mediated desensitization of the alpha isoform of the human thromboxane A(2) receptor. Biochem Pharmacol 62: 229-239.
  • Fujino H, Salvi S, Regan JW (2005) Differential regulation of phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein after activation of EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors by prostaglandin E2. Mol Pharmacol 68: 251-259.
  • Fujino H, Xu W, Regan JW (2003) Prostaglandin E2 induced functional expression of early growth response factor-1 by EP4, but not EP2, prostanoid receptors via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. J Biol Chem 278: 12151-12156.
  • Gallant MA, Slipetz D, Hamelin E, Rochdi MD, Talbot S, de Brum-Fernandes AJ, Parent JL (2007) Differential regulation of the signaling and trafficking of the two prostaglandin D2 receptors, prostanoid DP receptor and CRTH2. Eur J Pharmacol 557: 115-123.
  • Habib A, FitzGerald GA, Maclouf J (1999) Phosphorylation of the thromboxane receptor alpha, the predominant isoform expressed in human platelets. J Biol Chem 274: 2645-2651.
  • Harris RC (2013) Physiologic and pathophysiologic roles of cyclooxygenase-2 in the kidney. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 124: 139-151.
  • Hirata T, Ushikubi F, Kakizuka A, Okuma M, Narumiya S (1996) Two thromboxane A2 receptor isoforms in human platelets. Opposite coupling to adenylyl cyclase with different sensitivity to Arg60 to Leu mutation. J Clin Invest 97: 949-956.
  • Holla VR, Backlund MG, Yang P, Newman RA, DuBois RN (2008) Regulation of prostaglandin transporters in colorectal neoplasia. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 1: 93-99.
  • Inoue H, Tanabe T, Umesono K (2000) Feedback control of cyclooxygenase-2 expression through PPARgamma. J Biol Chem 275: 28028-28032.
  • Jabbour HN, Sales KJ, Boddy SC, Anderson RA, Williams AR (2005) A positive feedback loop that regulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin F2alpha synthesis via the F-series-prostanoid receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway. Endocrinology 146: 4657-4664.
  • Jang TJ, Ji YS, Jung KH (2008) Decreased expression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in gastric carcinomas. Yonsei Med J 49: 917-922.
  • Johannesdottir SA, Chang ET, Mehnert F, Schmidt M, Olesen AB, Sørensen HT (2012) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of skin cancer: a population-based case-control study. Cancer 118: 4768-4776.
  • Kam Y, Chow KB, Wise H (2001) Factors affecting prostacyclin receptor agonist efficacy in different cell types. Cell Signal 13: 841-847.
  • Kanekura T, Goorha S, Kirtikara K, Ballou LR (2002) The involvement of NF-kappaB in the constitutive overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in cyclooxygenase-1 null cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1542: 14-22.
  • Kapoor M, Kojima F, Qian M, Yang L, Crofford LJ (2007) Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 deficiency is associated with elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma: regulation by prostaglandin E2 via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt pathway. J Biol Chem 282: 5356-5366.
  • Katoh H, Watabe A, Sugimoto Y, Ichikawa A, Negishi M (1995) Characterization of the signal transduction of prostaglandin E receptor EP1 subtype in cDNA-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1244: 41-48.
  • Kelley-Hickie LP, Kinsella BT (2004) EP1- and FP-mediated cross-desensitization of the alpha (alpha) and beta (beta) isoforms of the human thromboxane A2 receptor. Br J Pharmacol 142: 203-221.
  • Kelley-Hickie LP, Kinsella BT (2006) Homologous desensitization of signalling by the beta (beta) isoform of the human thromboxane A2 receptor. Biochim Biophys Acta 1761: 1114-1131.
  • Kelley-Hickie LP, O'Keeffe MB, Reid HM, Kinsella BT (2007) Homologous desensitization of signalling by the alpha (alpha) isoform of the human thromboxane A2 receptor: a specific role for nitric oxide signalling. Biochim Biophys Acta 1773: 970-989.
  • Kim EH, Na HK, Kim DH, Park SA, Kim HN, Song NY, Surh YJ (2008) 15-Deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 induces COX-2 expression through Akt-driven AP-1 activation in human breast cancer cells: a potential role of ROS. Carcinogenesis 29: 688-695.
  • Kirtikara K, Morham SG, Raghow R, Laulederkind SJ, Kanekura T, Goorha S, Ballou LR (1998) Compensatory prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis in cyclooxygenase 1 or 2 null cells. J Exp Med 187: 517-523.
  • Kitamura T, Itoh M, Noda T, Tani K, Kobayashi M, Maruyama T, Kobayashi K, Ohuchida S, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K (2003) Combined effects of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP1 and subtype EP4 antagonists on intestinal tumorigenesis in adenomatous polyposis coli gene knockout mice. Cancer Sci 94: 618-621.
  • Kitz K, Windischhofer W, Leis HJ, Huber E, Kollroser M, Malle E (2011) 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 induces Cox-2 expression in human osteosarcoma cells through MAPK and EGFR activation involving reactive oxygen species. Free Radic Biol Med 50: 854-865.
  • Koppal T, Petrova TV, Van Eldik LJ (2000) Cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) acts as a general inhibitor of inflammatory responses in activated BV-2 microglial cells. Brain Res 867: 115-121.
  • Krotz F, Schiele TM, Klauss V, Sohn HY (2005) Selective COX-2 inhibitors and risk of myocardial infarction. J Vasc Res 42: 312-324.
  • Laroche G, Lépine MC, Thériault C, Giguère P, Giguère V, Gallant MA, de Brum-Fernandes A, Parent JL (2005) Oligomerization of the alpha and beta isoforms of the thromboxane A2 receptor: relevance to receptor signaling and endocytosis. Cell Signal 17: 1373-1383.
  • Lasa M, Mahtani KR, Finch A, Brewer G, Saklatvala J, Clark AR (2000) Regulation of cyclooxygenase 2 mRNA stability by the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 signaling cascade. Mol Cell Biol 20: 4265-4274.
  • Lawler OA, Miggin SM, Kinsella BT (2001) Protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of serine 357 of the mouse prostacyclin receptor regulates its coupling to G(s)-, to G(i)-, and to G(q)-coupled effector signaling. J Biol Chem 276: 33596-33607.
  • Lee HJ, Yang DH, Ryu YM, Song M, Song HJ, Jung KW, Kim KJ, Ye BD, Byeon JS, Choi EK, Yang SK, Kim JH, Myung SJ (2013) 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in colorectal mucosa as a potential biomarker for predicting colorectal neoplasms. J Korean Med Sci 28: 1154-1160.
  • Linkous A, Yazlovitskaya E (2010) Cytosolic phospholipase A2 as a mediator of disease pathogenesis. Cell Microbiol 12: 1369-1377.
  • Liu Z, Wang X, Lu Y, Han S, Zhang F, Zhai H, Lei T, Liang J, Wang J, Wu K, Fan D (2008) Expression of 15-PGDH is downregulated by COX-2 in gastric cancer. Carcinogenesis 29: 1219-1227.
  • Mendez M, LaPointe MC (2005) PGE2-induced hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes involves EP4 receptor-dependent activation of p42/44 MAPK and EGFR transactivation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 288: H2111-H2117.
  • Meng FG, Zhang ZY (2013) Redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity by hydroxyl radical. Biochim Biophys Acta 1834: 464-469.
  • Meyer-Kirchrath J, Debey S, Glandorff C, Kirchrath L, Schrör K (2004) Gene expression profile of the Gs-coupled prostacyclin receptor in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Biochem Pharmacol 67: 757-765.
  • Miggin SM, Kinsella BT (2002) Investigation of the mechanisms of G protein: effector coupling by the human and mouse prostacyclin receptors. Identification of critical species-dependent differences. J Biol Chem 277: 27053-27064.
  • Miggin SM, Kinsella BT (2002) Regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase cascades by alpha- and beta-isoforms of the human thromboxane A(2) receptor. Mol Pharmacol 61: 817-831.
  • Miyosawa K, Sasaki M, Ohkubo S, Nakahata N (2006) Different pathways for activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase through thromboxane A2 receptor isoforms. Biol Pharm Bull 29: 719-724.
  • Murakami M, Kuwata H, Amakasu Y, Shimbara S, Nakatani Y, Atsumi G, Kudo I (1997) Prostaglandin E2 amplifies cytosolic phospholipase A2- and cyclooxygenase-2-dependent delayed prostaglandin E2 generation in mouse osteoblastic cells. Enhancement by secretory phospholipase A2. J Biol Chem 272: 19891-19897.
  • Murata T, Aritake K, Matsumoto S, Kamauchi S, Nakagawa T, Hori M, Momotani E, Urade Y, Ozaki H (2011) Prostagladin D2 is a mast cell-derived antiangiogenic factor in lung carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108: 19802-19807.
  • Nakanishi M, Montrose DC, Clark P, Nambiar PR, Belinsky GS, Claffey KP, Xu D, Rosenberg DW (2008) Genetic deletion of mPGES-1 suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 68: 3251-3259.
  • Neuschäfer-Rube F, Hermosilla R, Kuna M, Pathe-Neuschäfer-Rube A, Schülein R, Püschel GP (2005) A Ser/Thr cluster within the C-terminal domain of the rat prostaglandin receptor EP3alpha is essential for agonist-induced phosphorylation, desensitization and internalization. Br J Pharmacol 145: 1132-1142.
  • Neuschäfer-Rube F, Oppermann M, Möller U, Böer U, Püschel GP (1999) Agonist-induced phosphorylation by G protein-coupled receptor kinases of the EP4 receptor carboxyl-terminal domain in an EP3/EP4 prostaglandin E(2) receptor hybrid. Mol Pharmacol 56: 419-428.
  • Niknami M, Vignarajan S, Yao M, Hua S, Witting PK, Kita Y, Shimizu T, Sved P, Patel MI, Dong Q (2010) Decrease in expression or activity of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha increases cyclooxygenase-1 action: A cross-talk between key enzymes in arachidonic acid pathway in prostate cancer cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1801: 731-737.
  • Nilius SM, Hasse A, Kuger P, Schrör K, Meyer-Kirchrath J (2000) Agonist-induced long-term desensitization of the human prostacyclin receptor. FEBS Lett 484: 211-216.
  • Poligone B, Baldwin AS (2001) Positive and negative regulation of NF-kappaB by COX-2: roles of different prostaglandins. J Biol Chem 276: 38658-38664.
  • Rao JS, Langenbach R, Bosetti F (2005) Down-regulation of brain nuclear factor-kappa B pathway in the cyclooxygenase-2 knockout mouse. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 139: 217-224.
  • Reid HM, Kinsella BT (2009) Intermolecular cross-talk between the prostaglandin E2 receptor (EP)3 of subtype and thromboxane A(2) receptor signalling in human erythroleukaemic cells. Br J Pharmacol 158: 830-847.
  • Reid HM, Kinsella BT (2007) Palmitoylation of the TPbeta isoform of the human thromboxane A2 receptor. Modulation of G protein: effector coupling and modes of receptor internalization. Cell Signal 19: 1056-1070.
  • Rösch S, Ramer R, Brune K, Hinz B (2005) Prostaglandin E2 induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells through activation of p38 and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 338: 1171-1178.
  • Roy SJ, Parent A, Gallant MA, de Brum-Fernandes AJ, Stanková J, Parent JL (2010) Characterization of C-terminal tail determinants involved in CRTH2 receptor trafficking: identification of a recycling motif. Eur J Pharmacol 630: 10-18.
  • Sakuma Y, Li Z, Pilbeam CC, Alander CB, Chikazu D, Kawaguchi H, Raisz LG (2004) Stimulation of cAMP production and cyclooxygenase-2 by prostaglandin E(2) and selective prostaglandin receptor agonists in murine osteoblastic cells. Bone 34: 827-834.
  • Sales KJ, Grant V, Jabbour HN (2008) Prostaglandin E2 and F2alpha activate the FP receptor and up-regulate cyclooxygenase-2 expression via the cyclic AMP response element. Mol Cell Endocrinol 285: 51-61.
  • Sales KJ, Katz AA, Davis M, Hinz S, Soeters RP, Hofmeyr MD, Millar RP, Jabbour HN (2001) Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E(2) synthesis are up-regulated in carcinomas of the cervix: a possible autocrine/paracrine regulation of neoplastic cell function via EP2/EP4 receptors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86: 2243-2249.
  • Sales KJ, List T, Boddy SC, Williams AR, Anderson RA, Naor Z, Jabbour HN (2005) A novel angiogenic role for prostaglandin F2alpha-FP receptor interaction in human endometrial adenocarcinomas. Cancer Res 65: 7707-7716.
  • Sales KJ, Milne SA, Williams AR, Anderson RA, Jabbour HN (2004) Expression, localization, and signaling of prostaglandin F2 alpha receptor in human endometrial adenocarcinoma: regulation of proliferation by activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89: 986-993.
  • Sandee D, Sivanuntakorn S, Vichai V, Kramyu J, Kirtikara K (2009) Up-regulation of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in COX-1 and COX-2 knock-out mouse fibroblast cell lines. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 88: 111-116.
  • Sapirstein A, Saito H, Texel SJ, Samad TA, O'Leary E, Bonventre JV (2005) Cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha regulates induction of brain cyclooxygenase-2 in a mouse model of inflammation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288: R1774-R1782.
  • Sasaki M, Miyosawa K, Ohkubo S, Nakahata N (2006) Physiological significance of thromboxane A(2) receptor dimerization. J Pharmacol Sci 100: 263-270.
  • Sawano H, Haneda M, Sugimoto T, Inoki K, Koya D, Kikkawa R (2002) 15-Deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 inhibits IL-1beta-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in mesangial cells. Kidney Int 61: 1957-1967.
  • Schermuly RT, Pullamsetti SS, Breitenbach SC, Weissmann N, Ghofrani HA, Grimminger F, Nilius SM, Schrör K, Kirchrath JM, Seeger W, Rose F (2007) Iloprost-induced desensitization of the prostacyclin receptor in isolated rabbit lungs. Respir Res 8: 4.
  • Schröder R, Merten N, Mathiesen JM, Martini L, Kruljac-Letunic A, Krop F, Blaukat A, Fang Y, Tran E, Ulven T, Drewke C, Whistler J, Pardo L, Gomeza J, Kostenis E (2009) The C-terminal tail of CRTH2 is a key molecular determinant that constrains Galphai and downstream signaling cascade activation. J Biol Chem 284: 1324-1336.
  • Serou MJ, DeCoster MA, Bazan NG (1999) Interleukin-1 beta activates expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in primary hippocampal neuronal culture: platelet-activating factor as a preferential mediator of cyclooxygenase-2 expression. J Neurosci Res 58: 593-598.
  • Setia S, Vaish V, Sanyal SN (2012) Chemopreventive effects of NSAIDs as inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducers of apoptosis in experimental lung carcinogenesis. Mol Cell Biochem 366: 89-99.
  • Shibata T, Yamada T, Ishii T, Kumazawa S, Nakamura H, Masutani H, Yodoi J, Uchida K (2003) Thioredoxin as a molecular target of cyclopentenone prostaglandins. J Biol Chem 278: 26046-26054.
  • Slipetz D, Buchanan S, Mackereth C, Brewer N, Pellow V, Hao C, Adam M, Abramovitz M, Metters KM (2001) Sequestration and phosphorylation of the prostaglandin E2 EP4 receptor: dependence on the C-terminal tail. Biochem Pharmacol 62: 997-1012.
  • Smyth EM, Austin SC, Reilly MP, FitzGerald GA (2000) Internalization and sequestration of the human prostacyclin receptor. J Biol Chem 275: 32037-32045.
  • Sobolewski A, Jourdan KB, Upton PD, Long L, Morrell NW (2004) Mechanism of cicaprost-induced desensitization in rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells involves a PKA-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 287: L352-L359.
  • Srinivasan D, Fujino H, Regan JW. (2002) Differential internalization of the prostaglandin f(2alpha) receptor isoforms: role of protein kinase C and clathrin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 302: 219-224.
  • Straus DS, Pascual G, Li M, Welch JS, Ricote M, Hsiang CH, Sengchanthalangsy LL, Ghosh G, Glass CK (2000) 15-deoxy-delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 inhibits multiple steps in the NF-kappa B signaling pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 4844-4849.
  • Subbaramaiah K, Lin DT, Hart JC, Dannenberg AJ (2001) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands suppress the transcriptional activation of cyclooxygenase-2. Evidence for involvement of activator protein-1 and CREB-binding protein/p300. J Biol Chem 276: 12440-12448.
  • Surh YJ, Na HK, Park JM, Lee HN, Kim W, Yoon IS, Kim DD (2011) 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2, an electrophilic lipid mediator of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving signaling. Biochem Pharmacol 82: 1335-1351.
  • Tai HH, Chi X, Tong M (2011) Regulation of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 96: 37-40.
  • Tong M, Ding Y, Tai HH (2006) Reciprocal regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase expression in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Carcinogenesis 27: 2170-2179.
  • Trebino CE, Eskra JD, Wachtmann TS, Perez JR, Carty TJ, Audoly LP (2005) Redirection of eicosanoid metabolism in mPGES-1-deficient macrophages. J Biol Chem 280: 16579-16585.
  • Vezza R, Rokach J, FitzGerald GA (2001) Prostaglandin F(2alpha) receptor-dependent regulation of prostaglandin transport. Mol Pharmacol 59: 1506-1513.
  • Wakimoto N, Wolf I, Yin D, O'Kelly J, Akagi T, Abramovitz L, Black KL, Tai HH, Koeffler HP (2008) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs suppress glioma via 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase. Cancer Res 68: 6978-6986.
  • Walsh MT, Foley JF, Kinsella BT (2000) The alpha, but not the beta, isoform of the human thromboxane A2 receptor is a target for prostacyclin-mediated desensitization. J Biol Chem 275: 20412-20423.
  • Walsh MT, Kinsella BT (2000) Regulation of the human prostanoid TPalpha and TPbeta receptor isoforms mediated through activation of the EP(1) and IP receptors. Br J Pharmacol 131: 601-609.
  • Wikström K, Kavanagh DJ, Reid HM, Kinsella BT (2008) Differential regulation of RhoA-mediated signaling by the TPalpha and TPbeta isoforms of the human thromboxane A2 receptor: independent modulation of TPalpha signaling by prostacyclin and nitric oxide. Cell Signal 20: 1497-1512.
  • Wilson SJ, Dowling JK, Zhao L, Carnish E, Smyth EM (2007) Regulation of thromboxane receptor trafficking through the prostacyclin receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells: role of receptor heterodimerization. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27: 290-296.
  • Wilson SJ, McGinley K, Huang AJ, Smyth EM (2007) Heterodimerization of the alpha and beta isoforms of the human thromboxane receptor enhances isoprostane signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 352: 397-403.
  • Wilson SJ, Roche AM, Kostetskaia E, Smyth EM (2004) Dimerization of the human receptors for prostacyclin and thromboxane facilitates thromboxane receptor-mediated cAMP generation. J Biol Chem 279: 53036-53047.
  • Wolf I, O'Kelly J, Rubinek T, Tong M, Nguyen A, Lin BT, Tai HH, Karlan BY, Koeffler HP (2006) 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase is a tumor suppressor of human breast cancer. Cancer Res 66: 7818-7823.
  • Woodward DF, Jones RL, Narumiya S (2011) International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXIII: classification of prostanoid receptors, updating 15 years of progress. Pharmacol Rev 63: 471-538.
  • Xiao L, Ornatowska M, Zhao G, Cao H, Yu R, Deng J, Li Y, Zhao Q, Sadikot RT, Christman JW. (2012) Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 mediates late-phase PGE2 production in bone marrow derived macrophages. PLoS One 7: e50244.
  • Zhang J, Goorha S, Raghow R, Ballou LR (2002) The tissue-specific, compensatory expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in transgenic mice. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 67: 121-135.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.