Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2014 | 61 | 4 | 633-638
Article title

Antimicrobial resistance in Rhodococcus equi

Title variants
Languages of publication
Rhodococcus equi is an important etiologic agent of respiratory- and non-respiratory tract infections, diseases of animals and humans. Therapy includes the use of various group of chemotherapeutic agents, however resistance acquirement is quite common. To date there is no preferred treatment protocol for infections caused by isolates resistant to macrolides and rifampicin. The resistance acquirement is a result of many molecular mechanisms, some of which include alterations in the cell envelope composition and structure, activity of the efflux pumps, enzymatic destruction or inactivation of antibiotics, and changes in the target site. This paper contains an overview of antimicrobial susceptibility of R. equi, and explains the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for antimicrobial resistance in this particular microorganism.
Physical description
  • Departament of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
  • Departament of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
  • Laboratory of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
  • Departament of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
  • Arora K, Whiteford DC, Lau-Bonilla D, Davitt CM, Dahl JL (2008) Inactivation of lsr2 results in a hypermotile phenotype in Mycobacterium smegmatis. J Bacteriol 190: 4291-4300.
  • Asoh N, Watanabe H, Fines-Guyon M, Watanabe K, Oishi K, Kositsakulchai W, Sanchai T, Kunsuikmengrai K, Kahintapong S, Khantawa B, Tharavichitkul P, Sirisanthana T, Nagatake T (2003) Emergence of rifampin-resistant Rhodococcus equi with several types of mutations in the rpoB gene among AIDS patients in northern Thailand. J Clin Microbiol 41: 2337-2340.
  • Bowersock TL, Salmon SS, Portis ES, Prescott JF, Robison DA, Ford CW, Watts JL (2000) MICs of Oxazolidinones for Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Humans and Animals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44: 1367-1369.
  • Boyen F, Pasmans F, Haesebrouck F (2011) Acquired antimicrobial resistance in equine Rhodococcus equi isolates. Vet Rec 168: 101a.
  • Buckley T, McManamon E, Stanbridge S (2007) Resistance studies of erythromycin and rifampin for Rhodococcus equi over a 10-year period. Ir Vet J 60: 728-731.
  • Butaye P, Cloeckaert A, Schwarz S (2003) Mobile genes coding for efflux-mediated antimicrobial resistance in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Int J Antimicrob Agents 22: 205-210.
  • Chaffin MK, Fajt V, Martens RJ, Arnold CE, Cohen ND, O'Conor M, Taylor RJ, Bernstein LR (2010) Pharmacokinetics of an orally administered methylcellulose formulation of gallium maltolate in neonatal foals. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 33: 376-382.
  • Cisek AA, Rzewuska M, Witkowski L, Binek M (2013) Antimicrobial susceptibility of Rhodococcus equi isolated from wild boars. Post Mikobiol 52 (Suppl 1): 102.
  • Colangeli R, Helb D, Vilchèze C, Hazbón MH, Lee CG, Safi H, Sayers B, Sardone I, Jones MB, Fleischmann RD, Peterson SN, Jacobs WR Jr, Alland D (2007) Transcriptional regulation of multi-drug tolerance and antibiotic-induced responses by the histone-like protein Lsr2 in M. tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog 3: e87.
  • Coleman M, Kuskie K, Liu M, Chaffin K, Libal M, Giguère S, Bernstein L, Cohen N (2010) In vitro antimicrobial activity of gallium maltolate against virulent Rhodococcus equi. Vet Microbiol 146: 175-178.
  • de Bruijn M, Boschloo H, Fink-Gremmels J (2013) Clinical report: gamithromycin treatment for Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals. Proceedings of the European Veterinary Conference Voorjaarsdagen 2013..
  • de Carvahlo CCCR (2010) Adaptation of Rhodococcus to organic solvents. In Biology of Rhodococcus Alvarez HM, ed, pp 109-132. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Fines M, Pronost S, Maillard K, Taouji S, Leclercq R (2001) Characterization of mutations in the rpoB gene associated with rifampin resistance in Rhodococcus equi isolated from foals. J Clin Microbiol 39: 2784-277.
  • Giguère S, Cohen ND, Chaffin MK, Slovis NM, Hondalus MK, Hines SA, Prescott JF (2011) Diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of infections caused by Rhodococcus equi in foals. J Vet Intern Med 25: 1209-1220.
  • Giguère S, Lee E, Williams E, Cohen ND, Chaffin MK, Halbert N, Martens RJ, Franklin RP, Clark CC, Slovis NM (2010) Determination of the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance to macrolide antimicrobials or rifampin in Rhodococcus equi isolates and treatment outcome in foals infected with antimicrobial-resistant isolates of R equi. J Am Vet Med Assoc 237: 74-81.
  • Giguère S, Lee EA, Guldbech KM, Berghaus LJ (2012) In vitro synergy, pharmacodynamics, and postantibiotic effect of 11 antimicrobial agents against Rhodococcus equi. Vet Microbiol 160: 207-213.
  • Gilbert DN, Moellering RC Jr., Eliopoulos GM, Chambers HF, Saag MS, editors., eds (2010) Table 2. In The Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy 2010. 40th edn, pp 62-64. Antimicrobial Therapy, Inc., Sperryville, VA.
  • Girardini LK, Gressler LT, da Costa MM, de Avila Botton S, da Cruz Payão Pellegrini D, de Vargas AV (2013) Susceptibility profile of Brazilian Rhodococcus equi isolates to different antimicrobial classes and the presence of vapA gene. Pesq Vet Bras 33: 735-740.
  • Hsueh PR, Hung CC, Teng LJ, Yu MC, Chen YC, Wang HK, Luh KT (1998) Report of invasive Rhodococcus equi infections in Taiwan, with an emphasis on the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. Clin Infect Dis 27: 370-375.
  • Jacks SS, Giguére S, Nguyen A (2003) In vitro susceptibilities of Rhodococcus equi and other common equine pathogens to azithromycin, clarithromycin, and 20 other antimicrobials. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47: 1742-1745.
  • Kuyukina MS, Ivshina IB (2010) Application of Rhodococcus in bioremediation of contaminated environments. In Biology of Rhodococcus, Alvarez HM, ed, pp 231-262. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Larcher S, Yargeau V (2011) Biodegradation of sulfamethoxazole by individual and mixed bacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 91: 211-218.
  • Letek M, González P, MacArthur I, Rodríguez H, Freeman TC, Valero-Rello A, Blanco M, Buckley T, Cherevach I, Fahey R, Hapeshi A, Holdstock J, Leadon D, Navas J, Ocampo A, Quail M.A, Sanders M, Scortti MM, Prescott JF, Fogarty U, Meijer WG, Parkhill J, Bentley SD, Vázquez-Boland JA (2010) The Genome of a Pathogenic Rhodococcus: Cooptive Virulence Underpinned by Key Gene Acquisitions. PLoS Genet 6: e1001145.
  • Linder R, Bernheimer AW (1997) Oxidation of macrophage membrane cholesterol by intracellular Rhodococcus equi. Vet Microbiol 56: 269-276.
  • Martinez JL (2009) The role of natural environments in the evolution of resistance traits in pathogenic bacteria. Proc Biol Sci 276: 2521-2530.
  • McNeil MM, Brown JM (1992) Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Rhodococcus equi from clinical specimens. Eur J Epidemiol 8: 437-443.
  • Meroueh SO, Minasov G, Lee W, Shoichet BK, Mobashery S (2003) Structural aspects for evolution of beta-lactamases from penicillin-binding proteins. J Am Chem Soc 125: 9612-9618.
  • Muscatello G (2012) Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in the foal - part 2: diagnostics, treatment and disease management. Vet J 192: 27-33.
  • Niwa H, Hobo S, Anzai T (2006) A nucleotide mutation associated with fluoroquinolone resistance observed in gyrA of in vitro obtained Rhodococcus equi mutants. Vet Microbiol 115: 264-268.
  • Niwa H, Hobo S, Higuchi T (2005) Antimicrobial susceptibility of 616 Rhodococcus equi strains isolated from tracheobronchial aspirates of foals suffering from respiratory disease in Japan. J Equine Sci 16: 99-104.
  • Niwa H, Lasker BA (2010) Mutant selection window and characterization of allelic diversity for ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants of Rhodococcus equi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54: 3520-3523.
  • Nordmann P, Keller M, Espinasse F, Ronco E (1994) Correlation between antibiotic resistance, phage-like particle presence, and virulence in Rhodococcus equi human isolates. J Clin Microbiol 32: 377-383.
  • Nordmann P, Nicolas MH, Gutmann L (1993) Penicillin-binding proteins of Rhodococcus equi: potential role in resistance to imipenem. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 37: 1406-1409.
  • Nordmann P, Ronco E (1992) In-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Rhodococcus equi. J Antimicrob Chemother 29: 383-393.
  • Ribeiro MG, Paes AC, Listoni FJP (2006) Minimal inhibitory concentration of azithromycin in Rhodococcus equi strains isolated from foals. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 58: 1244-1246.
  • Silva Pd, Miyata M, Sato DN, Santos AC, Mendes NH, Leite CQ (2010) Rhodococcus equi isolation from sputum of patients with suspected tuberculosis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 105: 199-202.
  • Soriano F, Zapardiel J, Nieto E (1995) Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39: 208-214.
  • Sutcliffe IC, Brown AK Dover LG (2010) The rhodococcal cell envelope: composition, organisation and biosynthesis. In Biology of Rhodococcus Alvarez HM, ed, pp 29-71. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Tomlin P, Sand C, Rennie RP (2001) Evaluation of E test, disk diffusion and broth microdilution to establish tentative quality control limits and review susceptibility breakpoints for two aerobic actinomycetes. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 40: 179-186.
  • Vázquez-Boland JA, Letek, M, Valero-Rello A, González P, Scortti M, Fogarty U (2010) Rhodococcus equi and its pathogenic mechanisms. In Biology of Rhodococcus Alvarez HM, ed, pp 331-359. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Venner M, Credner N, Lämmer M, Giguère S (2013) Comparison of tulathromycin, azithromycin and azithromycin-rifampin for the treatment of mild pneumonia associated with Rhodococcus equi. Vet Rec 173: 397.
  • Villarino N, Martín-Jiménez T (2013) Pharmacokinetics of macrolides in foals. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 36: 1-13.
  • Weinstock DM, Brown AE (2002) Rhodococcus equi: an emerging pathogen. Clin Infect Dis 34: 1379-1385.
  • Wilson WD (2001) Rational selection of antimicrobials for use in horses. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the AAEP 2001 47: 75-93
  • Witkowski L, Rzewuska M, Rzewuska D, Kizerwetter-Świda M, Frymus T, Kita J (2011) Rhodococcus equi infections in animals and humans. Wiad Lek 64: 306-309.
  • Woolcock JB, Mutimer MD (1980) Corynebacterium equi: In vitro susceptibility to twenty-six antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 18: 976-977.
  • Yamshchikov AV, Schuetz A, Lyon GM (2010) Rhodococcus equi infection. Lancet Infect Dis 10: 350-359.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.