Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2014 | 61 | 3 | 489-494
Article title

Diversity of influenza-like illness etiology in Polish Armed Forces in influenza epidemic season

Title variants
Languages of publication
The aim of this study was to conduct an epidemiological and laboratory surveillance of Influenza-Like Illnesses (ILI) in Polish Armed Forces, civilian military personnel and their families in 2011/2012 epidemic season, under the United States Department of Defense-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS). ILI incidence data were analyzed in relation to age, gender, patient category as well as pathogen patterns. Multiple viral, bacterial and viral-bacterial co-infections were identified. Nose and throat swabs of active duty soldiers in the homeland country and in the NATO peacekeeping forces KFOR (Kosovo Force), as well as members of their families were tested for the presence of viral and bacterial pathogens. From October 2011 to May 2012, 416 specimens from ILI symptoms patients were collected and analyzed for the presence of viral and bacterial pathogens. Among viruses, coronavirus was the most commonly detected. In the case of bacterial infections, the most common pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus.
Physical description
  • Bombardt JN Jr, Brown HE (2003) Potential influenza effects on military populations (No. IDA-P-3786). Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA.
  • Chertow DS, Memoli MJ (2013) Bacterial Coinfection in Influenza A Grand Rounds Review. JAMA 309: 275-282.
  • Cui S, Tian L, Peng X, Lu G, Shi W, Meng D, Wang Q (2012) Prevalence of seasonal influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1 Virus in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. Ann Lab Med 32: 455-456.
  • EPIMELD-NIH (2010) Occurrence of selected infectious diseases in Poland, from January 1st to December 31st of 2010 in compared to period of 2009. National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene (in Polish).
  • EPIMELD-NIH (2012) Occurrence of selected infectious diseases in Poland, from January 1st to December 31st of 2012 in compared to period of 2011. National Intitute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene (in Polish).
  • EUCAST (2012) European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters. Version 2.0, valid from 2012-01-01 (
  • Falsey AR, Becker KL, Swinburne AJ, Nylen ES, Formica MA, Hennessey PA, Criddle MM, Peterson DR, Baran A, Walsh EE (2013) Bacterial complications of respiratory tract viral illness: a comprehensive evaluation. J Infect Dis 208: 432-41.
  • Harrison TR, Adams RD, Bennett IL Jr, Resnik, WH, Thorn GW, Wintrobe MM (1962) Principles of internal medicine. Acad Med 37: 1246.
  • Huber I, Campe H, Sebah D, Hartberger C, Konrad R, Bayer M, Busch U, Sing A (2011) A multiplex one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for influenza surveillance. Euro Surveill 16: 19798-19805.
  • Lee JH, Chun JK, Kim DS, Park Y, Choi JR, Kim HS (2010) Identification of adenovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus by two kinds of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and shell vial culture in pediatric patients with viral pneumonia. Yonsei Med J 51: 761-767.
  • Leo YS, Lye DC, Barkham T, Krishnan P, Seow E, Chow A (2010) Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 surveillance and prevalence of seasonal influenza, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 103-105.
  • Meerhoff TJ, Houben ML, Coenjaerts FE, Kimpen JL, Hofland RW, Schellevis F, Bont LJ (2010) Detection of multiple respiratory pathogens during primary respiratory infection: nasal swab versus nosopharyngeal aspirate using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29: 365-371.
  • Nakauchi M, Yasui Y, Miyoshi T, Minagawa H, Tanaka T, Tashiro M, Kageyama T (2011) One-step real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays for detecting and subtyping pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009, seasonal influenza A/H1N1, and seasonal influenza A/H3N2 viruses. J Virol Methods 171: 156-162.
  • Panasik A, Pancer K (2009) Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infections in young children. Przegl Epidemiol 63: 369-374 (in Polish).
  • Paranhos-Baccalà G, Komurian-Pradel F, Richard N, Vernet G, Lina B, Floret D (2008) Mixed respiratory virus infections. J Clin Virol 43: 407-410.
  • Stefańska I, Romanowska M, Brydak LB (2012) Methods of detection of selected respiratory viruses. Post Hig Med Dosw 66: 452-460 (in Polish).
  • WHO (2012) Summary of the 2011-2012 influenza season in the WHO European region,
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.