Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2013 | 60 | 4 | 865-870
Article title

Arbutin production via biotransformation of hydroquinone in in vitro cultures of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott

Title variants
Languages of publication
Arbutin (hydroquinone β-D-glucoside) is a compound of plant origin possessing valuable therapeutic (urinary tract disinfection) and cosmetic (skin whitening) properties, which can be obtained from in vitro cultures of plants belonging to different taxa via biotransformation of exogenously supplemented hydroquinone. Agitating cultures of Aronia melanocarpa were maintained on the Murashige and Skoog medium containing growth regulators: the cytokinin - BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), 2 mg/l and the auxin NAA (α-naphthaleneacetic acid), 2 mg/l. The biomass was cultured for 2 weeks and then hydroquinone was supplemented at the following doses: 96, 144, 192, 288 and 384 mg/l either undivided or divided into two or three portions added at 24-hour intervals. The content of the reaction product - arbutin, was determined using an HPLC method in methanolic extracts from biomass and lyophilized medium samples collected 24 hours after the addition of the last precursor dose. The total amounts of arbutin were very diverse, from 2.71 to 8.27 g/100g d.w. The production of arbutin rose with increasing hydroquinone concentration. The maximum content of the product was observed after hydroquinone addition at 384 mg/l divided into two portions. Biotransformation efficiency also varied widely, ranging from 37.04% do 73.80%. The identity of the product - arbutin, after its isolation and purification was confirmed by spectral analysis (1H-NMR spectrum). The maximum amount of arbutin obtained was higher than that required by the latest 9th Edition of the Polish Pharmacopoeia and by the newest 8th Edithion of European Pharmacopoeia for Uvae ursi folium (7.0 g/100g d.w.), and is interesting from practical point of view.
Physical description
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum, Kraków, Poland
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum, Kraków, Poland
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum, Kraków, Poland
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum, Kraków, Poland
  • Akiu S, Suzuki Y, Fujinuma Y, Asahara T, Fukuda M (1988) Inhibitory effect of arbutin on melanogenesis: biochemical study in cultured B16 melanoma cells and effect on the UV-induced pigmentation in human skin. Proc Jpn Soc Invest Deramtol 12: 138-139.
  • Azadbakht M, Marston A, Hostettmann K, Ramezani M, Jahromi Maghddam M (2004) Biological activity of leaf extract and phenol glycoside arbutin of Pyrus boisseriana Buhse. J Med Plants 3: 9-14.
  • Chang M-L, Chang Ch-M (2003) Simultaneous HPLC determination of hydrophylic whitening agents in cosmetic products. J Pharm Biomed Anal 33: 617-626.
  • Cho J-Y, Park KY, Lee HJ, Lee SH, Cho JA, Kim W-S, Shin SC, Park KH, Moon JH (2011) Recovery of arbutin in high purity from fruit peels of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Food Sci Biotechnol 20: 801-807.
  • Dušková J, Dušek J, Jahodár L (1999) Zur Biotransformation von Hydrochinon zu Arbutin in den In Vitro-Kulturen. Herba Pol 45: 23-26.
  • Ekiert H, Kwiecień I, Szopa A, Muszyńska B (2012) Possibilities of arbutin production using plant biotechnology methods. Pol J Cosmetol 15: 151-162.
  • European Pharmacopoeia 8th Edition (2013) Bearberry leaf (Uvae ursi folium), European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines, Council of Europe, vol. 1, pp 1162-1163. Strasbourg, France.
  • Furmanowa M, Rapczewska L (1993) Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch (Bergenia): Micropropagation and arbutin contents. In Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 21 Medicinal and Aromatic Plants IV. Bajaj YPS ed, pp 18-33, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  • Kohlmünzer S (1998) Pharmacognosy. Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, pp 233-237, Warszawa, Poland (in Polish).
  • Kokotkiewicz A, Jaremicz Z, Łuczkiewicz M (2010) Aronia plants: a review of traditional use, biological activities, and perspectives for modern medicine. J Med Food 13: 255-269.
  • Kulling SE, Rawel HM (2008) Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) - A review on the characteristic components and potential health effects. Planta Med 74: 1625-1634.
  • Kurosu J, Sato T, Yoshida K, Tsugane T, Shimura S, Kirimura K, Kino K, Usami S (2002) Enzymatic synthesis of α-arbutin by α-anomer-selective glucosylation of hydroquinone using lyophilized cells of Xanthomonas campestris WU-9701. J Biosci Bioeng 93: 328-330.
  • Kwiecień I, Majcher J, Ekiert H (2013) Biotransformation of hydroquinone into arbutin in in vitro cultures of Aronia melanocarpa - preliminary results. 7th Polish-German Symposium on Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gdańsk, Abstracts pp 136.
  • Lee KH, Cho J-Y, Lee HJ, Park KY, Ma Y-K, Lee S-H, Cho JA, Kim WS, Park KH, Moon J-H (2011) Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from Asian pear Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai fruit peel. Food Sci Biotechnol 20: 1539-1545.
  • Linsmaier EM, Skoog F(1965) Organic growth factor requirements of tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 18: 100-127.
  • Litwińczuk W (2002) Propagation of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa Elliot) through in vitro culture. Electron J Pol Agricult University Horticult 5: 1-8.
  • Litwińczuk W (2013) Micropropagation of chokeberry by in vitro axillary shoot proliferation. Methods Mol Biol 11013: 179-186.
  • Lutterbach R, Stöckigt J (1992) High yield formation of arbutin from hydroquinone by cell-suspension cultures of Rauvolfia serpentina. Helv Chim Acta 75: 2009-2011.
  • Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15: 473-497.
  • Oszmański J, Wojdyło A (2005) Aronia melanocarpa phenolics and their antioxidant activity. Eur Food Res Technol 221: 809-813.
  • Pękoś-Mirkowa H, Mirek Z (2003) Flora of Poland. Atlas of protected plants. Multico Oficyna Wydawnicza, pp 132-133, Warszawa, Poland (in Polish).
  • Piekoszewska A, Ekiert H, Zubek S (2010) Arbutin production in Ruta graveolens L. and Hypericum perforatum L. in vitro cultures. Acta Physiol Plant 32: 223-229.
  • Pierzchała E, Jurzak M (2007) Active substances in cosmetic products inhibiting synthesis of melanin. Dermatol Estet 9: 381-383 (in Polish).
  • Polish Pharmacopoeia 9th Edition (2011) Uvae ursi folium. The Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products, vol. 1, pp 1410-1411. Warszawa, Poland.
  • Quintus J, Kovar KA, Link P, Hamacher H (2005) Urinary excretion of arbutin metabolites after oral administration of bearberry leaf extracts. Planta Med 71: 147-152.
  • Recasens J, Ninot P, Cristobal R, Ayemerich P (2008) Sustinable wild harvesting of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi in the Pyrenees as a conservation practice. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 14: 1-12.
  • Rendon M, Gaviria J (2005) Review of skin-lightening agents. Dermatol Surg 31: 886-889.
  • Rumińska A (1991) Herb grower's guide. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Leśne, Poznań, Poland (in Polish).
  • Senderski ME (2004) Almost everything about herbs. Senderski ME ed, Podkowa Leśna, Poland (in Polish).
  • Seo D-H, Jung J-H, Ha S-J, Cho H-K, Jung D-H, Kim T-J, Baek N-I, Yoo S-H, Park C-S (2012a) High-yield enzymatic bioconversion of hydroquinone to α-arbutin, a powerful skin lightening agent, by amylosucrase. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 94: 1189-1197.
  • Seo D-H, Jung J-H, Lee J-h, Jeon E-J, Kim W, Park C-S (2012b) Biotechnological production of arbutins (α- and β-arbutins), skin-lightening agents, and their derivatives. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 95: 1417-1425.
  • Silmestad R, Torskangerpoll K, Nateland HS, Johannessen T, Giske NH (2005) Flavonoids from black chokeberries, Aronia melanocarpa. J Food Compos Anal 18: 61-68.
  • Skrzypczak-Pietraszek E, Szewczyk A, Piekoszewska A, Ekiert H (2005) Biotransformation of hydroquinone to arbutin in plant in vitro cultures - preliminary results. Acta Physiol Plant 27: 79-87.
  • Štambergová A, Supčiková M, Leifertová I (1985) Evaluation of phenolic substances in Arctostaphylos uvae-ursi. IV. Determination of arbutin, methylarbutin and hydroquinone in the leaves by HPLC. Českoslov Farm 34: 179-182 (in Czech).
  • Stammwitz U (1998) Pflanziche Harnwegsdesinifizenzien zien - heute noch aktuell? Zeitsch Phytother 19: 90-95.
  • Strapková A, Jahodář L, Nosalová G (1991) Antitussive effect of arbutin. Pharmazie 46: 611-612.
  • Suzuki T, Yoshioka T, Tabata M, Fujita Y (1987) Potential of Datura innoxia cell suspension cultures for glucosylating hydroquinone. Plant Cell Rep 6: 275-278.
  • Szopa A, Ekiert H (2013) Production of biologically active phenolic acids in Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott in vitro cultures cultivated on different variants of the Murashige and Skoog medium. Plant Growth Regul DOI 10.1007/s10725-013-9835-2.
  • Szopa A, Ekiert H, Muszyńska B (2013) Accumulation of hydroxybenzoic acids and other biologically active phenolic acids in shoot and callus cultures of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott (black chokeberry). Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 113: 323-329.
  • WHO Monographs on selected plants (2002) Folium Uvae ursi, World Health Organization, Vol. 2, pp 342-351, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Wichtl M (1997) Teedrogen und Phytopharmaka. Wissenschaftlische Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, pp 599-602, Stuttgart, Germany.
  • Yokoyama M, Inomata S (1998) Catharanthus roseus (Periwinckle): In vitro culture and high-level production of arbutin by biotransformation. In Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 41 Medicinal and Aromatic Plants X. Bajaj YPS ed, pp 67-80. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.
  • Zdunczyka Z, Frejnagela S, Wróblewska M, Juśkiewicz J, Oszmiański J, Estrellac I (2002) Biological activity of polyphenol extracts from different plant sources. Food Res Intern 35: 183-186.
  • Zubek S, Janas E, Ekiert H (2009) Optimisation of hydroquinone biotransformation conditions in in vitro cultures of Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata. XXXVIII Zjazd Polskich Ogrodów Botanicznych. Poznań 2009, Abstracts pp 99 (in Polish).
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.