Metastasis inhibition after proton beam, β- and γ-irradiation of melanoma growing in the hamster eye
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Standard ocular tumor treatment includes brachytherapy, as well as proton therapy, particularly for large melanoma tumors. However, the effects of different radiation types on the metastatic spread is not clear. We aimed at comparing ruthenium (106Ru, emitting β electrons) and iodine (125I, γ-radiation) brachytherapy and proton beam therapy of melanoma implanted into the hamster eye on development of spontaneous lung metastases. Tumors of Bomirski Hamster Melanoma (BHM) implanted into the anterior chamber of the hamster eye grew aggressively and completely filled the anterior chamber within 8-10 days. Metastases, mainly in the lung, were found in 100% of untreated animals 30 days after enucleation. Tumors were irradiated at a dose of 3-10 Gy with a 106Ru plaque and at a dose of 6-14 Gy using a 125I plaque. The protons were accelerated using the AIC-144 isochronous cyclotron operating at 60 MeV. BHM tumors located in the anterior chamber of the eye were irradiated with 10 Gy, for the depth of 3.88 mm. All radiation types caused inhibition of tumor growth by about 10 days. An increase in the number of metastases was observed for 3 Gy of β-irradiation, whereas at 10 Gy an inhibition of metastasis was found. γ-radiation reduced the metastatic mass at all applied doses, and proton beam therapy at 10 Gy also inhibited the metastastic spread. These results are discussed in the context of recent clinical and molecular data on radiation effects on metastasis.
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