Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | 59 | 1 | 83-85
Article title

Extraction and analysis of carotenoids from the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus gonads

Title variants
Languages of publication
Sea urchin gonad (roe) is a highly valued food in Japan and North America. Gonad price is strongly influenced by quality, with appearance, especially colour being a major determinant. Previous attempts to extract a carotenoid profile from the New Zealand sea urchin species Evechinus chloroticus have been challenging due to the large amount of lipid present in the gonad. A carotenoid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method was developed to reduce lipid contamination by incorporating a saponification and lipid cold precipitation in the extraction procedure. This method enabled greater carotenoid purity and enhanced analysis by HPLC. Echinenone was found to be the main carotenoid present in all E. chloroticus gonads. Dark coloured gonads contained higher levels of fucoxanthin/fucoxanthinol, β-carotene and xanthophylls such as astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. This information on the modification and deposition of carotenoids will help in the development of diets to enhance gonad colour.

Physical description
  • Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
  • Department of Food Science, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
  • Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
  • Barker MF, Keogh JA, Lawrence JM, Lawrence AL (1998) Feeding rate, absorption efficiencies, growth, and enhancement of gonad production in the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus Valenciennes (Echinoidea:Echinometridae) fed prepared and natural diets. J Shellfish Res 17: 1583-1590.
  • Barker MF (2001) Edible Sea Urchins: Biology and Ecology. The ecology of Evechinus chloroticus. Lawrence JM, eds, pp 245-261. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.
  • Britton G (1995) Structure and properties of carotenoids in relation to function. FASEB J 9: 1551-1558.
  • Galasko G, Hora J, Toube T, Weedon B, Andre D, Barbier M, Lederer E, Villanueva V (1969) Carotenoids and related compounds. Part XXII. Allenic carotenoids in sea urchins. J Chem Soc C: 1264-1265.
  • Hora J, Toube TP, Weedon BCL (1970) Carotenoids and related compounds. Part XXVII. Conversion of fucoxanthin into paracentrone. J Chem Soc C: 241-242.
  • James PJ (2006a) A comparison of roe enhancement of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus in sea-based and land-based cages. Aquaculture 253: 290-300.
  • James PJ (2006b) The effects of wave and feeding disturbance on roe enhancement of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus held in sea-cages. Aquaculture 252: 361-371.
  • James PJ, Heath PL (2008) Long term roe enhancement of Evechinus chloroticus. Aquaculture 278: 89-96.
  • Keesing JK, Hall KC (1998) Review of harvests and status of world sea urchin fisheries points to opportunities for aquaculture. J Shellfish Res 17: 1597-1604.
  • Kelly MS (2001) Environmental parameters controlling gametogenesis in the echinoid Psammechinus miliaris. J Exp Mar Bio Ecol 266: 67-80.
  • Lamare M, Hoffman J (2004) Natural variation of carotenoids in the eggs and gonads of the echinoid genus, Strongylocentrotus: implications for their role in ultraviolet radiation photoprotection. J Exp Mar Bio Ecol 312: 215-232.
  • Lawrence J (2001) Edible Sea Urchins: Biology and Ecology. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • Liyana-Pathirana C, Shahidi F, Hooper F (2007) Lipid and lipid soluble components of gonads of green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis). J Food Lipids 9: 105-126.
  • Liyana-Pathirana C, Shahidi F, Whittick A, Hooper R (2002) Effect of season and artificial diet on amino acids and nucleic acids in gonads of green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 133: 389-398.
  • McBride S, Price R, Tom P, Lawrence J, Lawrence A (2004) Comparison of gonad quality factors: colour, hardness and resilience, of Strongylocentrotus fransiscanus between sea urchins fed prepared feed or algal diets and sea urchins harvested from the Northern California fishery. Aquaculture 233: 405-422
  • McShane P, Anderson O, Gerring P, Stewart R, Naylor J (1994) Fisheries biology of Kina (Evechinus chloroticus). Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Wellington, New Zealand (New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Research Document 94/17).
  • Phillips K, Niimi J, Hamid N, Silcock P, Delahunty C, Barker M, Sewell M, Bremer P (2009a) Sensory and volatile analysis of sea urchin roe from different geographical regions in New Zealand. Food Sci Technoly 243: 202-213.
  • Phillips K, Hamid N, Silcock P, Delahunty C, Barker M, Bremer P (2009b) Effect of season on the sensory quality of sea urchin (Evechinus chloroticus) roe. J Food Sci 75: S20-S30.
  • Phillips K, Bremer P, Silcock P, Hamid N, Delahunty C, Barker M, Kissick J (2009c) Effect of gender, diet and storage time on the physical properties and sensory quality of sea urchin (Evechinus chloroticus) gonads. Aquaculture 288: 205-215.
  • Shpigel M, Schlosser S, Ben-Amotz A, Lawrence A, Lawrence J (2005) Effects of dietary carotenoid on the gut and gonad of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Aquaculture 261: 1269-1280.
  • Symonds R, Kelly M, Caris-Veyrat C, Young A (2007) Carotenoids in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus: Occurrence of 9'-cis-echinenone as the dominant carotenoid in gonad colour determination. Comp Biochem Physiol Part B: Biochem Mol Biol 148: 432-444.
  • Symonds R, Kelly M, Suckling C, Young A (2009) Carotenoids in the gonad and gut of the edible sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Aquaculture 288: 120-125.
  • Robinson S, Castell J, Kennedy E (2002) Developing suitable colour in the gonads of cultured green sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) fed diets. Aquaculture 206: 289-303.
  • Tsushima M, Matsuno T (1990) Comparative biochemical studies of carotenoids in sea urchins. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 96: 801-810.
  • Unuma T, Nakamura A, Yamano K, Yokota Y (2010) The sea urchin major yolk protein is synthesized mainly in the gut inner epithelium and the gonadal nutritive phagocytes before and during gametogenesis. Mol Reprod Dev 77: 59-68.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.