Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | 59 | 2 | 265-270
Article title

Protective effects of cassia seed ethanol extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice

Title variants
Languages of publication
Oxidative stress has been recognized as a critical pathogenetic mechanism for the initiation and the progression of hepatic injury in a variety of liver disorders. Antioxidants, including many natural compounds or extracts, have been used to cope with liver disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of cassia seed ethanol extract (CSE) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in mice. The animals were pre-treated with different doses of CSE (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg body weight) or distilled water for 5 days, then were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (0.1% in corn oil, v/v, 20 ml/kg body weight), and sacrificed at 16 hours after CCl4 exposure. The serum aminotransferase activities, histopathological changes, hepatic and mitochondrial antioxidant indexes, and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activities were examined. Consistent with previous studies, acute CCl4 administration caused great lesion to the liver, shown by the elevation of the serum aminotransferase activities, mitochondria membrane permeability transition (MPT), and the ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes. However, these adverse effects were all significantly inhibited by CSE pretreatment. CCl4-induced decrease of the CYP2E1 activity was dose-dependently inhibited by CSE pretreatment. Furthermore, CSE dramatically decreased the hepatic and mitochondrial malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, increased the hepatic and mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) levels, and restored the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). These results suggested that CSE could protect mice against CCl4-induced liver injury via enhancement of the antioxidant capacity.
Physical description
  • Department of Pharmacy, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan City, Shandong Province, China
  • Department of Pharmacy, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan City, Shandong Province, China
  • Department of Pharmacy, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan City, Shandong Province, China
  • Avasarala S, Yang L, Sun Y, Leung AW, Chan WY, Cheung WT, Lee SS (2006) A temporal study on the histopathological, biochemical and molecular responses of CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in Cyp2e1-null mice. Toxicology 228: 310-322.
  • Bhakta T, Banerjee S, Mandal SC, Maity TK, Saha BP, Pal M (2001) Hepatoprotective activity of Cassia fistula leaf extract. Phytomedicine 8: 220-224.
  • Comporti M (1989) Three models of free radical-induced cell injury. Chem Biol Interact 72: 1-56.
  • Di Simplicio P, Mannervik B (1983) Enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism in rat liver and blood after carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Toxicol Lett 18: 285-289.
  • Drever BD, Anderson WG, Riedel G, Kim DH, Ryu JH, Choi DY, Platt B (2008) The seed extract of Cassia obtusifolia offers neuroprotection to mouse hippocampal cultures. J Pharmacol Sci 107: 380-392.
  • Dwivedi S, Sharma R, Sharma A, Zimniak P, Ceci JD, Awasthi YC, Boor PJ (2006) The course of CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity is altered in mGSTA4-4 null (-/-) mice. Toxicology 218: 58-66.
  • Fang YZ, Yang S, Wu G (2002) Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition. Nutrition 18: 872-879.
  • Fernandez G, Villarruel MC, de Toranzo EG, Castro JA (1982) Covalent binding of carbon tetrachloride metabolites to the heme moiety of cytochrome P-450 and its degradation products. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 35: 283-290.
  • Franco R, Schoneveld O, Georgakilas AG, Panayiotidis MI (2008) Oxidative stress, DNA methylation and carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 266: 6-11.
  • Fukao T, Hosono T, Misawa S, Seki T, Ariga T (2004) Chemoprotective effect of diallyl trisulfide from garlic against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury of rats. Biofactors 21: 171-174.
  • Guo H, Chang Z, Yang R, Guo D, Zheng J (1998) Anthraquinones from hairy root cultures of Cassia obtusifolia. Phytochemistry 49: 1623-1625.
  • Hewawasam RP, Jayatilaka KA, Pathirana C, Mudduwa LK (2003) Protective effect of Asteracantha longifolia extract in mouse liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol. J Pharm Pharmacol 55: 1413-1418.
  • Hsu YW, Tsai CF, Chang WH, Ho YC, Chen WK, Lu FJ (2008) Protective effects of Dunaliella salina - a carotenoids-rich alga, against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Food Chem Toxicol 46: 3311-3317.
  • Jafri MA, Jalis Subhani M, Javed K, Singh S (1999) Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Cassia occidentalis against paracetamol and ethyl alcohol intoxication in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 66: 355-361.
  • Kim DH, Yoon BH, Kim YW, Lee S, Shin BY, Jung JW, Kim HJ, Lee YS, Choi JS, Kim SY, Lee KT, Ryu JH (2007) The seed extract of Cassia obtusifolia ameliorates learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine or transient cerebral hypoperfusion in mice. J Pharmacol Sci 105: 82-93.
  • Kitanaka S, Nakayama T, Shibano T, Ohkoshi E, Takido M (1998) Antiallergic agent from natural sources. Structures and inhibitory effect of histamine release of naphthopyrone glycosides from seeds of Cassia obtusifolia L. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 46: 1650-1652.
  • Lee KJ, Choi JH, Khanal T, Hwang YP, Chung YC, Jeong HG (2008) Protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Toxicology 248: 18-24.
  • Lei XG (2002) In vivo antioxidant role of glutathione peroxidase: evidence from knockout mice. Methods Enzymol 347: 213-225.
  • Manibusan MK, Odin M, Eastmond DA (2007) Postulated carbon tetrachloride mode of action: a review. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev 25: 185-209.
  • Medina J, Moreno-Otero R (2005) Pathophysiological basis for antioxidant therapy in chronic liver disease. Drugs 65: 2445-2461.
  • Nwozo SO, Oyinloye BE (2011) Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Aframomum melegueta on ethanol-induced toxicity in rats. Acta Biochim Pol 58: 355-358.
  • Pahan K, Smith BT, Singh AK, Singh I (1997) Cytochrome P-450 2E1 in rat liver peroxisomes: downregulation by ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 23: 963-971.
  • Pradeep K, Mohan CV, Gobianand K, Karthikeyan S (2007) Effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury in rats. Chem Biol Interact 167: 12-18.
  • Roberts BJ, Shoaf SE, Song BJ (1995) Rapid changes in cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) activity and other P450 isozymes following ethanol withdrawal in rats. Biochem Pharmacol 49: 1665-1673.
  • Sheweita SA, Abd El-Gabar M, Bastawy M (2001a) Carbon tetrachloride-induced changes in the activity of phase II drug-metabolizing enzyme in the liver of male rats: role of antioxidants. Toxicology 165: 217-224.
  • Sheweita SA, El-Gabar MA, Bastawy M (2001b) Carbon tetrachloride changes the activity of cytochrome P450 system in the liver of male rats: role of antioxidants. Toxicology 169: 83-92.
  • Skinner CM, Rangasami J (2002) Preoperative use of herbal medicines: a patient survey. Br J Anaesth 89: 792-795.
  • Song Z, Zhou Z, Chen T, Hill D, Kang J, Barve S, McClain C (2003) S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) protects against acute alcohol induced hepatotoxicity in mice small star, filled. J Nutr Biochem 14: 591-597.
  • Srivastava A, Shivanandappa T (2006) Hepatoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of the roots of Decalepis hamiltonii against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats. Hepatol Res 35: 267-275.
  • Sung BK, Kim MK, Lee WH, Lee DH, Lee HS (2004) Growth responses of Cassia obtusifolia toward human intestinal bacteria. Fitoterapia 75: 505-509.
  • Tierney DJ, Haas AL, Koop DR (1992) Degradation of cytochrome P450 2E1: selective loss after labilization of the enzyme. Arch Biochem Biophys 293: 9-16.
  • Weerachayaphorn J, Chuncharunee A, Jariyawat S, Lewchalermwong B, Amonpatumrat S, Suksamrarn A, Piyachaturawat P (2010) Protection of centrilobular necrosis by Curcuma comosa Roxb. in carbon tetrachloride-induced mice liver injury. J Ethnopharmacol 129: 254-260.
  • Wong FW, Chan WY, Lee SS (1998) Resistance to carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice which lack CYP2E1 expression. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 153: 109-118.
  • Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND (2004) Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. J Nutr 134: 489-492.
  • Yang CS, Chhabra SK, Hong JY, Smith TJ (2001) Mechanisms of inhibition of chemical toxicity and carcinogenesis by diallyl sulfide (DAS) and related compounds from garlic. J Nutr 131: 1041S-1045S.
  • Yue J, Peng R, Chen J, Liu Y, Dong G (2009) Effects of rifampin on CYP2E1-dependent hepatotoxicity of isoniazid in rats. Pharmacol Res 59: 112-119.
  • Yun-Choi HS, Kim JH, Takido M (1990) Potential inhibitors of platelet aggregation from plant sources, V. Anthraquinones from seeds of Cassia obtusifolia and related compounds. J Nat Prod 53: 630-633.
  • Zeng T, Zhang CL, Song FY, Han XY, Xie KQ (2009) The modulatory effects of garlic oil on hepatic cytochrome P450s in mice. Hum Exp Toxicol 28: 777-783.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.