Violaxanthin and diadinoxanthin de-epoxidation in various model lipid systems
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The xanthophyll cycle is an important photoprotective process functioning in plants. One of its forms, the violaxanthin (Vx) cycle, involves interconversion between: Vx, antheraxanthin (Ax) and zeaxanthin (Zx). Another kind of the xanthophyll cycle is the diadinoxanthin (Ddx) cycle in which interconversion between Ddx and diatoxanthin (Dtx) occurs. In this study an information on molecular mechanism and regulation of these two types of the xanthophyll cycle is presented. The influence of lipids on the de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle pigments was investigated, with special focus put on the significance of physical properties of the aggregates formed by inverted lipid micelles, which are necessary for activity of the xanthophyll cycle enzymes. In particular, thickness of the hydrophobic fraction of the aggregates, size of the inverted micelles, suggested by mathematical description of the structures and solubility of Vx and Ddx in various kind of lipids were studied. Obtained results show that the rate of de-epoxidation is strongly dependent on the physicochemical properties of the lipids used. The key role for enzyme activation play non-bilayer lipids and the parameters of inverted micelles such as thickness, fluidity of hydrophobic core and their diameter. The presented results show that MGDG and other non-lamellar lipids like different forms of phosphatidylethanolamine are necessary for the Vx and Ddx de-epoxidation because they provide the three-dimensional structures, which are needed for the binding of de-epoxidases and for the accessibility of Vx and Ddx to these enzymes.
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