Detection and identification of potentially toxic cyanobacteria in Polish water bodies
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The main goal of this study was to determine the distribution of potentially toxic cyanobacteria in 39 selected Polish water bodies. From the water bodies with blooms and also from those in which blooms were not visible 87 samples were investigated. For the first time samples from ponds localized in villages with high agricultural activities were included. Lakes for which microcystin concentrations had been determined before were included as a reference for the research. The detection of cyanobacteria was conducted by microscopic observation as well as by PCR amplification of the rpoC1 gene fragment. Cyanobacteria were present in 75 out of 87 samples. The presence of potentially toxic cyanobacteria was detected by amplification of the mcyB and mcyE genes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of microcystins. Both genes were detected in 7 out of 9 blooms investigated. In the case of samples collected from water bodies in which blooms were not observed, the mcyB and mcyE genes were detected in 20 out of 36. In order to identify the cyanobacteria occurring in selected reservoirs, 16S plus ITS clone libraries were constructed. The method allowed distinguishing 18 different genotypes. After sequence analysis, cyanobacteria belonging to genera Microcystis, Planktothrix, Anabaena, Pseudanabaena, Synechocystis, Synechococcus and Woronichinia were identified. Results confirmed the usefulness of the rpoC1 and mcy genes for monitoring water bodies and detection of potentially toxic cyanobacteria. Application of molecular markers allowed detecting potentially toxic cyanobacteria before the bloom was visible. This is the first comprehensive study concerning cyanobacteria present in different types of Polish water bodies performed using molecular markers.
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