Evidence for differential effects of glucose and cycloheximide on mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) machinery members: Superinduction of PPAR-γ1 and -γ2 mRNAs
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Quantitative real-time RT-PCR study was conducted to reveal the effects of normal (5 mmol/l) and high (30 mmol/l) glucose without or with oleate (0.3 mmol/l) on mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-)α, -γ1, -γ2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator- (PGC-)1α and -1β in commercial human hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells maintained under low-serum condition. Significant decrease in PPAR-γ1 and PGC-1α mRNA levels to about 50 % was observed during the first 4 h incubation period. During the next 4 h period, both PPAR-γ1 and PGC-1α mRNAs were partly but significantly restored in high glucose batches. In this period, the presence of the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D revealed a significant protective effect of excess glucose on mature PPAR-γ1 and PGC-1α mRNAs. Furthermore, PPAR-γ1 and -γ2 mRNAs were differentially superinduced 1.2-2.5 fold in cells upon the administration of the translational inhibitor cycloheximide. When the cells were co-treated with the combination of cycloheximide and actinomycin D, superinduction was completely suppressed, however. Altogether, the experiments revealed, first, an unexpected protective effect of abundant glucose on PPAR-γ1 and PGC-1α mRNAs in HepG2 cells. Second, we demonstrated cycloheximide-induced, transcription-dependent upregulation of mature PPAR-γ1 and -γ2 mRNAs in HepG2 cells associated with preferential expression of the PPAR-γ2 mRNA variant. The results draw attention to as yet unexplored mechanisms involved in the control of PPAR and PGC genes.
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