PL EN


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2010 | 57 | 1 | 1-13
Article title

Emerging role of alternative splicing of CRF1 receptor in CRF signaling

Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
Alternative splicing of mRNA is one of the most important mechanisms responsible for an increase of the genomic capacity. Thus the majority of human proteins including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) possess several isoforms as a result of mRNA splicing. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its receptors are the most proximal elements of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) - the central machinery of stress response. Moreover, expression of CRF and regulated activity of CRF receptor type 1 (CRF1) can also play an important role in regulation of local stress response in peripheral tissues including skin, gastrointestinal tract or reproductive system. In humans, expression of at least eight variants of CRF1 mRNA (α, β, c, d, e, f, g and h) was detected and alternative splicing was found to be regulated by diverse physiological and pathological factors including: growth conditions, onset of labor, during pregnancy or exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. The pattern of expression of CRF1 isoforms is cell type specific and recently has been linked to observed differences in responsiveness to CRF stimulation. In the proposed model of regulation of CRF-signaling, isoform CRF1α plays a central role. Other isoforms modulate its activity by oligomerization, leading to alteration in receptor trafficking, localization and function. Co-expression of CRF1 isoforms modulates sensitivity of cells to the ligands and influences downstream coupling to G-proteins. The other possible regulatory mechanisms include fast mRNA and/or protein turnover or decoy receptor function of CRF1 isoforms. Taken together, alternative splicing of CRF1 can represent another level of regulation of CRF-mediated stress responses at the central and peripheral levels. Chronic stress or malfunction of the HPA-axis have been linked to numerous human pathologies, suggesting that alternative splicing of CRF1 receptor could represent a promising target for drugs development.
Year
Volume
57
Issue
1
Pages
1-13
Physical description
Dates
published
2010
received
2009-08-20
revised
2010-03-02
accepted
2010-03-15
(unknown)
2010-03-16
References
  • Abdel-Malek Z, Swope VB, Suzuki I, Akcali C, Harriger MD, Boyce ST, Urabe K, Hearing VJ (1995) Mitogenic and melanogenic stimulation of normal human melanocytes by melanotropic peptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 1789-1793.
  • Abdel-Malek Z, Scott MC, Suzuki I, Tada A, Im S, Lamoreux L, Ito S, Barsh G, Hearing VJ (2000) The melanocortin-1 receptor is a key regulator of human cutaneous pigmentation. Pigment Cell Res 13 (Suppl 8): 156-162.
  • Amrani N, Sachs MS, Jacobson A (2006) Early nonsense: mRNA decay solves a translational problem. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7: 415-425.
  • Arai M, Assil IQ, Abou-Samra AB (2001) Characterization of three corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in catfish: a novel third receptor is predominantly expressed in pituitary and urophysis. Endocrinology 142: 446-454.
  • Arck P, Paus R (2006) From the brain-skin connection: the neuroendocrine-immune misalliance of stress and itch. Neuroimmunomodulation 13: 347-356.
  • Arck PC, Slominski A, Theoharides TC, Peters EM, Paus R (2006) Neuroimmunology of stress: skin takes center stage. J Invest Dermatol 126: 1697-1704.
  • Asakura H, Zwain IH, Yen SS (1997) Expression of genes encoding corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), type 1 CRF receptor, and CRF-binding protein and localization of the gene products in the human ovary. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82: 2720-2725.
  • Assil IQ, Abou-Samra AB (2001) N-glycosylation of CRF receptor type 1 is important for its ligand-specific interaction. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 281: E1015-1021.
  • Baeuerle PA, Baltimore D (1988) IκB: a specific inhibitor of the NF-κB transcription factor. Science 242: 540-546.
  • Bale TL, Vale WW (2004) CRF and CRF receptors: role in stress responsivity and other behaviors. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 44: 525-557.
  • Bauman J, Jearawiriyapaisarn N, Kole R (2009) Therapeutic potential of splice-switching oligonucleotides. Oligonucleotides 19: 1-14.
  • Bjarnadottir TK, Geirardsdottir K, Ingemansson M, Mirza MA, Fredriksson R, Schioth HB (2007) Identification of novel splice variants of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors. Gene 387: 38-48.
  • Blomeyer D, Treutlein J, Esser G, Schmidt MH, Schumann G, Laucht M (2008) Interaction between CRHR1 gene and stressful life events predicts adolescent heavy alcohol use. Biol Psychiatry 63: 146-151.
  • Bohm M, Luger TA, Tobin DJ, Garcia-Borron JC (2006) Melanocortin receptor ligands: new horizons for skin biology and clinical dermatology. J Invest Dermatol 126: 1966-1975.
  • Carlson KW, Nawy SS, Wei ET, Sadee W, Filov VA, Rezsova VV, Slominski A, Quillan JM (2001) Inhibition of mouse melanoma cell proliferation by corticotropin-releasing hormone and its analogs. Anticancer Res 21: 1173-1179.
  • Chang CP, Pearse RV 2nd, O'Connell S, Rosenfeld MG (1993) Identification of a seven transmembrane helix receptor for corticotropin-releasing factor and sauvagine in mammalian brain. Neuron 11: 1187-1195.
  • Charmandari E, Tsigos C, Chrousos G (2005) Endocrinology of the stress response. Annu Rev Physiol 67: 259-284.
  • Chen R, Lewis KA, Perrin MH, Vale WW (1993) Expression cloning of a human corticotropin-releasing-factor receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 8967-8971.
  • Chen AM, Perrin MH, Digruccio MR, Vaughan JM, Brar BK, Arias CM, Lewis KA, Rivier JE, Sawchenko PE, Vale WW (2005) A soluble mouse brain splice variant of type 2alpha corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor binds ligands and modulates their activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102: 2620-2625.
  • Chrousos GP (1995) The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune-mediated inflammation. N Engl J Med 332: 1351-1363.
  • Chrousos GP, Gold PW (1992) The concepts of stress and stress system disorders. Overview of physical and behavioral homeostasis. Jama 267: 1244-1252.
  • Clarke TK, Treutlein J, Zimmermann US, Kiefer F, Skowronek MH, Rietschel M, Mann K, Schumann G (2008) HPA-axis activity in alcoholism: examples for a gene-environment interaction. Addict Biol 13: 1-14.
  • Clifton VL, Telfer JF, Thompson AJ, Cameron IT, Teoh TG, Lye SJ, Challis JR (1998) Corticotropin-releasing hormone and proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides are present in human myometrium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83: 3716-3721.
  • Conn PM, Ulloa-Aguirre A, Ito J, Janovick JA (2007) G protein-coupled receptor trafficking in health and disease: lessons learned to prepare for therapeutic mutant rescue in vivo. Pharmacol Rev 59: 225-250.
  • Dautzenberg FM, Kilpatrick GJ, Hauger RL, Moreau J (2001) Molecular biology of the CRH receptors - in the mood. Peptides 22: 753-760.
  • Deak T, Nguyen KT, Ehrlich AL, Watkins LR, Spencer RL, Maier SF, Licinio J, Wong ML, Chrousos GP, Webster E, Gold PW (1999) The impact of the nonpeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone antagonist antalarmin on behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. Endocrinology 140: 79-86.
  • Duvernay MT, Filipeanu CM, Wu G (2005) The regulatory mechanisms of export trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors. Cell Signal 17: 1457-1465.
  • Eckart K, Jahn O, Radulovic J, Radulovic M, Blank T, Stiedl O, Brauns O, Tezval H, Zeyda T, Spiess J (2002) Pharmacology and biology of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors. Receptors Channels 8: 163-177.
  • Eckert RL, Crish JF, Efimova T, Dashti SR, Deucher A, Bone F, Adhikary G, Huang G, Gopalakrishnan R, Balasubramanian S (2004) Regulation of involucrin gene expression. J Invest Dermatol 123: 13-22.
  • Einstein R, Jordan H, Zhou W, Brenner M, Moses EG, Liggett SB (2008) Alternative splicing of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily in human airway smooth muscle diversifies the complement of receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105: 5230-5235.
  • Eves PC, MacNeil S, Haycock JW (2006) α-Melanocyte stimulating hormone, inflammation and human melanoma. Peptides 27: 444-452.
  • Fazal N, Slominski A, Choudhry MA, Wei ET, Sayeed MM (1998) Effect of CRF and related peptides on calcium signaling in human and rodent melanoma cells. FEBS Lett 435: 187-190.
  • Ganceviciene R, Graziene V, Fimmel S, Zouboulis CC (2009) Involvement of the corticotropin-releasing hormone system in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Br J Dermatol 160: 345-352.
  • Gao L, He P, Sha J, Liu C, Dai L, Hui N, Ni X (2007) Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 and type 2 mediate differential effects on 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression in cultured human chorion trophoblasts. Endocrinology 148: 3645-3654.
  • Gkountelias K, Tselios T, Venihaki M, Deraos G, Lazaridis I, Rassouli O, Gravanis A, Liapakis G (2009) Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the second extracellular loop of type 1 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor revealed residues critical for peptide binding. Mol Pharmacol 75: 793-800.
  • Grammatopoulos DK, Chrousos GP (2002) Functional characteristics of CRH receptors and potential clinical applications of CRH-receptor antagonists. Trends Endocrinol Metab 13: 436-444.
  • Grammatopoulos D, Thompson S, Hillhouse EW (1995) The human myometrium expresses multiple isoforms of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80: 2388-2393.
  • Grammatopoulos DK, Dai Y, Randeva HS, Levine MA, Karteris E, Easton AJ, Hillhouse EW (1999) A novel spliced variant of the type 1 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor with a deletion in the seventh transmembrane domain present in the human pregnant term myometrium and fetal membranes. Mol Endocrinol 13: 2189-2202.
  • Grammatopoulos DK, Randeva HS, Levine MA, Katsanou ES, Hillhouse EW (2000) Urocortin, but not corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway in human pregnant myometrium: an effect mediated via R1alpha and R2beta CRH receptor subtypes and stimulation of Gq-proteins. Mol Endocrinol 14: 2076-2091.
  • Gulyas J, Rivier C, Perrin M, Koerber SC, Sutton S, Corrigan A, Lahrichi SL, Craig AG, Vale W, Rivier J (1995) Potent, structurally constrained agonists and competitive antagonists of corticotropin-releasing factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 10575-10579.
  • Gurevich VV, Gurevich EV (2008) GPCR monomers and oligomers: it takes all kinds. Trends Neurosci 31: 74-81.
  • Hauger RL, Risbrough V, Brauns O, Dautzenberg FM (2006) Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor signaling in the central nervous system: new molecular targets. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 5: 453-479.
  • Hemley CF, McCluskey A, Keller PA (2007) Corticotropin releasing hormone - a GPCR drug target. Curr Drug Targets 8: 105-115.
  • Hillhouse EW, Grammatopoulos DK (2006) The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the biological activity of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors: implications for physiology and pathophysiology. Endocr Rev 27: 260-286.
  • Hillhouse EW, Randeva H, Ladds G, Grammatopoulos D (2002) Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors. Biochem Soc Trans 30: 428-432.
  • Hofmann BA, Sydow S, Jahn O, van Werven L, Liepold T, Eckart K, Spiess J (2001) Functional and protein chemical characterization of the N-terminal domain of the rat corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1. Protein Sci 10: 2050-2062.
  • Holmes KD, Babwah AV, Dale LB, Poulter MO, Ferguson SS (2006) Differential regulation of corticotropin releasing factor 1α receptor endocytosis and trafficking by β-arrestins and Rab GTPases. J Neurochem 96: 934-949.
  • Hunt G, Todd C, Kyne S, Thody AJ (1994) ACTH stimulates melanogenesis in cultured human melanocytes. J Endocrinol 140: R1-3.
  • Ito N, Ito T, Betterman A, Paus R (2004) The human hair bulb is a source and target of CRH. J Invest Dermatol 122: 235-237.
  • Itoi K, Helmreich DL, Lopez-Figueroa MO, Watson SJ (1999) Differential regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin gene transcription in the hypothalamus by norepinephrine. J Neurosci 19: 5464-5472.
  • Jin D, He P, You X, Zhu X, Dai L, He Q, Liu C, Hui N, Sha J, Ni X (2007) Expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 and type 2 in human pregnant myometrium. Reprod Sci 14: 568-577.
  • Jones TS, Kaste SC, Liu W, Cheng C, Yang W, Tantisira KG, Pui CH, Relling MV (2008) CRHR1 polymorphisms predict bone density in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 26: 3031-3037.
  • Karalis K, Sano H, Redwine J, Listwak S, Wilder RL, Chrousos GP (1991) Autocrine or paracrine inflammatory actions of corticotropin-releasing hormone in vivo. Science 254: 421-423.
  • Karteris E, Grammatopoulos D, Dai Y, Olah KB, Ghobara TB, Easton A, Hillhouse EW (1998) The human placenta and fetal membranes express the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1alpha (CRH-1α) and the CRH-C variant receptor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83: 1376-1379.
  • Kauser S, Schallreuter KU, Thody AJ, Gummer C, Tobin DJ (2003) Regulation of human epidermal melanocyte biology by beta-endorphin. J Invest Dermatol 120: 1073-1080.
  • Kauser S, Slominski A, Wei ET, Tobin DJ (2006) Modulation of the human hair follicle pigmentary unit by corticotropin-releasing hormone and urocortin peptides. Faseb J 20: 882-895.
  • Kole R, Williams T, Cohen L (2004) RNA modulation, repair and remodeling by splice switching oligonucleotides. Acta Biochim Pol 51: 373-378.
  • Kraetke O, Wiesner B, Eichhorst J, Furkert J, Bienert M, Beyermann M (2005) Dimerization of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 is not coupled to ligand binding. J Recept Signal Transduct Res 25: 251-276.
  • Laflamme N, Feuvrier E, Richard D, Rivest S (1999) Involvement of serotonergic pathways in mediating the neuronal activity and genetic transcription of neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing factor in the brain of systemically endotoxin-challenged rats. Neuroscience 88: 223-240.
  • Lagerstrom MC, Schioth HB (2008) Structural diversity of G protein-coupled receptors and significance for drug discovery. Nat Rev Drug Discov 7: 339-357.
  • Lewis BP, Green RE, Brenner SE (2003) Evidence for the widespread coupling of alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 189-192.
  • Lezoualc'h F, Engert S, Berning B, Behl C (2000) Corticotropin-releasing hormone-mediated neuroprotection against oxidative stress is associated with the increased release of non-amyloidogenic amyloid β precursor protein and with the suppression of nuclear factor κB. Mol Endocrinol 14: 147-159.
  • Lima JJ, Blake KV, Tantisira KG, Weiss ST (2009) Pharmacogenetics of asthma. Curr Opin Pulm Med 15: 57-62.
  • Liu Z, Zhu F, Wang G, Xiao Z, Wang H, Tang J, Wang X, Qiu D, Liu W, Cao Z, Li W (2006) Association of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 gene SNP and haplotype with major depression. Neurosci Lett 404: 358-362.
  • Luger T, Paus R, Lipton J, Slominski A (1999) Cutaneous neuromodulation: the proopiomelanocortin system. Ann N Y Acad Sci 885: 1-479.
  • Markovic D, Papadopoulou N, Teli T, Randeva H, Levine MA, Hillhouse EW, Grammatopoulos DK (2006) Differential responses of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 variants to protein kinase C phosphorylation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 319: 1032-1042.
  • Markovic D, Vatish M, Gu M, Slater D, Newton R, Lehnert H, Grammatopoulos DK (2007) The onset of labor alters corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor variant expression in human myometrium: putative role of interleukin-1β. Endocrinology 148: 3205-3213.
  • Markovic D, Lehnert H, Levine MA, Grammatopoulos DK (2008) Structural determinants critical for localization and signaling within the seventh transmembrane domain of the type 1 corticotropin releasing hormone receptor: lessons from the receptor variant R1d. Mol Endocrinol 22: 2505-2519.
  • Mikhailova MV, Mayeux PR, Jurkevich A, Kuenzel WJ, Madison F, Periasamy A, Chen Y, Cornett LE (2007) Heterooligomerization between vasotocin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors augments CRH-stimulated 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate production. Mol Endocrinol 21: 2178-2188.
  • Miller LJ, Dong M, Harikumar KG, Gao F (2007) Structural basis of natural ligand binding and activation of the Class II G-protein-coupled secretin receptor. Biochem Soc Trans 35: 709-712.
  • Minneman KP (2001) Splice variants of G protein-coupled receptors. Mol Interv 1: 108-116.
  • Muller MB, Preil J, Renner U, Zimmermann S, Kresse AE, Stalla GK, Keck ME, Holsboer F, Wurst W (2001) Expression of CRHR1 and CRHR2 in mouse pituitary and adrenal gland: implications for HPA system regulation. Endocrinology 142: 4150-4153.
  • Myers DA, Trinh JV, Myers TR (1998) Structure and function of the ovine type 1 corticotropin releasing factor receptor (CRF1) and a carboxyl-terminal variant. Mol Cell Endocrinol 144: 21-35.
  • Nag K, Sultana N, Kato A, Hirose S (2007) Headless splice variant acting as dominant negative calcitonin receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 362: 1037-1043.
  • Nelson CP, Challiss RA (2007) 'Phenotypic' pharmacology: the influence of cellular environment on G protein-coupled receptor antagonist and inverse agonist pharmacology. Biochem Pharmacol 73: 737-751.
  • Ohmori N, Itoi K, Tozawa F, Sakai Y, Sakai K, Horiba N, Demura H, Suda T (1995) Effect of acetylcholine on corticotropin-releasing factor gene expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of conscious rats. Endocrinology 136: 4858-4863.
  • Owens MJ, Nemeroff CB (1991) Physiology and pharmacology of corticotropin-releasing factor. Pharmacol Rev 43: 425-473.
  • Paez Pereda M, Sauer J, Perez Castro C, Finkielman S, Stalla GK, Holsboer F, Arzt E (1995) Corticotropin-releasing hormone differentially modulates the interleukin-1 system according to the level of monocyte activation by endotoxin. Endocrinology 136: 5504-5510.
  • Parham KL, Zervou S, Karteris E, Catalano RD, Old RW, Hillhouse EW (2004) Promoter analysis of human corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 1 receptor and regulation by CRF and urocortin. Endocrinology 145: 3971-3983.
  • Paschos KA, Kolios G, Chatzaki E (2009) The corticotropin-releasing factor system in inflammatory bowel disease: Prospects for new therapeutic approaches. Drug Discov Today 14: 713-720.
  • Pawelek JM, Chakraborty AK, Osber MP, Orlow SJ, Min KK, Rosenzweig KE, Bolognia JL (1992) Molecular cascades in UV-induced melanogenesis: a central role for melanotropins? Pigment Cell Res 5: 348-356.
  • Perrin MH, DiGruccio MR, Koerber SC, Rivier JE, Kunitake KS, Bain DL, Fischer WH, Vale WW (2003) A soluble form of the first extracellular domain of mouse type 2β corticotropin-releasing factor receptor reveals differential ligand specificity. J Biol Chem 278: 15595-15600.
  • Perrin MH, Fischer WH, Kunitake KS, Craig AG, Koerber SC, Cervini LA, Rivier JE, Groppe JC, Greenwald J, Moller Nielsen S, Vale WW (2001) Expression, purification, and characterization of a soluble form of the first extracellular domain of the human type 1 corticotropin releasing factor receptor. J Biol Chem 276: 31528-31534.
  • Perrin MH, Grace CR, Riek R, Vale WW (2006) The three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors: sushi domains and the B1 family of G protein-coupled receptors. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1070: 105-119.
  • Perrin MH, Vale WW (1999) Corticotropin releasing factor receptors and their ligand family. Ann N Y Acad Sci 885: 312-328.
  • Pisarchik A, Slominski AT (2001) Alternative splicing of CRH-R1 receptors in human and mouse skin: identification of new variants and their differential expression. Faseb J 15: 2754-2756.
  • Pisarchik A, Slominski A (2002) Corticotropin releasing factor receptor type 1: molecular cloning and investigation of alternative splicing in the hamster skin. J Invest Dermatol 118: 1065-1072.
  • Pisarchik A, Slominski A (2004) Molecular and functional characterization of novel CRFR1 isoforms from the skin. Eur J Biochem 271: 2821-2830.
  • Pisarchik A, Slominski A (2006) Variants of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor type 1 and uses thereof. US Patent No 7,071,161.
  • Polymeropoulos MH, Torres R, Yanovski JA, Chandrasekharappa SC, Ledbetter DH (1995) The human corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRHR) gene maps to chromosome 17q12-q22. Genomics 28: 123-124.
  • Reyes TM, Lewis K, Perrin MH, Kunitake KS, Vaughan J, Arias CA, Hogenesch JB, Gulyas J, Rivier J, Vale WW, Sawchenko PE (2001) Urocortin II: a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neuropeptide family that is selectively bound by type 2 CRF receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 2843-2848.
  • Rivier J, Gulyas J, Kirby D, Low W, Perrin MH, Kunitake K, DiGruccio M, Vaughan J, Reubi JC, Waser B, Koerber SC, Martinez V, Wang L, Tache Y, Vale W (2002) Potent and long-acting corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor 2 selective peptide competitive antagonists. J Med Chem 45: 4737-4747.
  • Rivier CL, Grigoriadis DE, Rivier JE (2003) Role of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors type 1 and 2 in modulating the rat adrenocorticotropin response to stressors. Endocrinology 144: 2396-2403.
  • Rivier J, Gulyas J, Kunitake K, DiGruccio M, Cantle JP, Perrin MH, Donaldson C, Vaughan J, Million M, Gourcerol G, Adelson DW, Rivier C, Tache Y, Vale W (2007) Stressin1-A, a potent corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) - selective peptide agonist. J Med Chem 50: 1668-1674.
  • Roche PJ, Crawford RJ, Fernley RT, Tregear GW, Coghlan JP (1988) Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for ovine corticotropin-releasing factor and regulation of its mRNA levels by glucocorticoids. Gene 71: 421-431.
  • Ross PC, Kostas CM, Ramabhadran TV (1994) A variant of the human corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor: cloning, expression and pharmacology. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 205: 1836-1842.
  • Quevedo MA, Slominski A, Pinto W, Wei E, Wortsman J (2001) Pleiotropic effects of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) on normal human keratinocytes. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 37A: 50-54.
  • Sakai K, Yamada M, Horiba N, Wakui M, Demura H, Suda T (1998) The genomic organization of the human corticotropin-releasing factor type-1 receptor. Gene 219: 125-130.
  • Schmid B, Blomeyer D, Treutlein J, Zimmermann US, Buchmann AF, Schmidt MH, Esser G, Rietschel M, Banaschewski T, Schumann G, Laucht M (2009) Interacting effects of CRHR1 gene and stressful life events on drinking initiation and progression among 19-year-olds. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol (CINP): 1-12.
  • Seck T, Baron R, Horne WC (2003) The alternatively spliced δe13 transcript of the rabbit calcitonin receptor dimerizes with the C1a isoform and inhibits its surface expression. J Biol Chem 278: 23085-23093.
  • Seck T, Pellegrini M, Florea AM, Grignoux V, Baron R, Mierke DF, Horne WC (2005) The δe13 isoform of the calcitonin receptor forms a six-transmembrane domain receptor with dominant-negative effects on receptor surface expression and signaling. Mol Endocrinol 19: 2132-2144.
  • Sexton PM, Morfis M, Tilakaratne N, Hay DL, Udawela M, Christopoulos G, Christopoulos A (2006) Complexing receptor pharmacology: modulation of family B G protein-coupled receptor function by RAMPs. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1070: 90-104.
  • Shkreta L, Froehlich U, Paquet ER, Toutant J, Elela SA, Chabot B (2008) Anticancer drugs affect the alternative splicing of Bcl-x and other human apoptotic genes. Mol Cancer Ther 7: 1398-1409.
  • Shyu JF, Inoue D, Baron R, Horne WC (1996) The deletion of 14 amino acids in the seventh transmembrane domain of a naturally occurring calcitonin receptor isoform alters ligand binding and selectively abolishes coupling to phospholipase C. J Biol Chem 271: 31127-31134.
  • Sirianni R, Mayhew BA, Carr BR, Parker CR Jr, Rainey WE (2005) Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortin act through type 1 CRH receptors to stimulate dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate production in human fetal adrenal cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 5393-5400.
  • Slominski AT (2006) Proopiomelanocortin signaling system is operating in mast cells. J Invest Dermatol 126: 1934-1936.
  • Slominski A (2009a) Neuroendocrine activity of the melanocyte. Exp Dermatol 18: 760-763.
  • Slominski A (2009b) On the role of the corticotropin-releasing hormone signalling system in the aetiology of inflammatory skin disorders. Br J Dermatol 160: 229-232.
  • Slominski A, Mihm MC (1996) Potential mechanism of skin response to stress. Int J Dermatol 35: 849-851.
  • Slominski A, Wortsman J (2000) Neuroendocrinology of the skin. Endocr Rev 21: 457-487.
  • Slominski A, Paus R, Wortsman J (1993) On the potential role of proopiomelanocortin in skin physiology and pathology. Mol Cell Endocrinol 93: C1-C6.
  • Slominski A, Ermak G, Hwang J, Chakraborty A, Mazurkiewicz JE, Mihm M (1995) Proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin releasing hormone and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor genes are expressed in human skin. FEBS Lett 374: 113-116.
  • Slominski A, Baker J, Ermak G, Chakraborty A, Pawelek J (1996a) Ultraviolet B stimulates production of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) by human melanocytes. FEBS Lett 399: 175-176.
  • Slominski A, Ermak G, Mihm M (1996b) ACTH receptor, CYP11A1, CYP17 and CYP21A2 genes are expressed in skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81: 2746-2749.
  • Slominski A, Ermak G, Mazurkiewicz JE, Baker J, Wortsman J (1998a) Characterization of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in human skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83: 1020-1024.
  • Slominski A, Paus R, Mihm MC (1998b) Inhibition of melanogenesis as an adjuvant strategy in the treatment of melanotic melanomas: selective review and hypothesis. Anticancer Res 18: 3709-3715.
  • Slominski AT, Botchkarev V, Choudhry M, Fazal N, Fechner K, Furkert J, Krause E, Roloff B, Sayeed M, Wei E, Zbytek B, Zipper J, Wortsman J, Paus R (1999) Cutaneous expression of CRH and CRH-R. Is there a 'skin stress response system?' Ann N Y Acad Sci 885: 287-311.
  • Slominski A, Szczesniewski A, Wortsman J (2000a) Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detection of corticotropin-releasing hormone and proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides in human skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85: 3582-3588.
  • Slominski A, Wortsman J, Luger T, Paus R, Solomon S (2000b) Corticotropin releasing hormone and proopiomelanocortin involvement in the cutaneous response to stress. Physiol Rev 80: 979-1020.
  • Slominski AT, Roloff B, Zbytek B, Wei ET, Fechner K, Curry J, Wortsman J (2000c) Corticotropin releasing hormone and related peptides can act as bioregulatory factors in human keratinocytes. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 36: 211-216.
  • Slominski A, Wortsman J, Pisarchik A, Zbytek B, Linton EA, Mazurkiewicz JE, Wei ET (2001) Cutaneous expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin, and CRH receptors. Faseb J 15: 1678-1693.
  • Slominski A, Wortsman J, Linton E, Pisarchik A, Zbytek B (2003) The skin as a model for the immunodulatory effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone. In Mind over Matter - Regulation of Peripheral Inflammation by the CNS. Schäfer M, Stein C, eds, 1 edn, pp 149-176. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel.
  • Slominski A, Pisarchik A, Tobin DJ, Mazurkiewicz JE, Wortsman J (2004a) Differential expression of a cutaneous corticotropin-releasing hormone system. Endocrinology 145: 941-950.
  • Slominski A, Tobin DJ, Shibahara S, Wortsman J (2004b) Melanin pigmentation in mammalian skin and its hormonal regulation. Physiol Rev 84: 1155-1228.
  • Slominski A, Zbytek B, Pisarchik A, Slominski RM, Zmijewski MA, Wortsman J (2006a) CRH functions as a growth factor/cytokine in the skin. J Cell Physiol 206: 780-791.
  • Slominski A, Zbytek B, Zmijewski M, Slominski RM, Kauser S, Wortsman J, Tobin DJ (2006b) Corticotropin releasing hormone and the skin. Front Biosci 11: 2230-2248.
  • Slominski A, Wortsman J, Tuckey RC, Paus R (2007a) Differential expression of HPA axis homolog in the skin. Mol Cell Endocrinol 265-266: 143-149.
  • Slominski AT, Zmijewski MA, Pisarchik A, Wortsman J (2007b) Molecular cloning and initial characterization of African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) corticotropin releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF1) from COS-7 cells. Gene 389: 154-162.
  • Slominski A, Wortsman J, Paus R, Elias PM, Tobin DJ, Feingold KR (2008) Skin as an endocrine organ: implications for its function. Drug Discov Today Dis Mech 5: 137-144.
  • Smith AI, Funder JW (1988) Proopiomelanocortin processing in the pituitary, central nervous system, and peripheral tissues. Endocr Rev 9: 159-179.
  • Spiess J, Rivier J, Rivier C, Vale W (1981) Primary structure of corticotropin-releasing factor from ovine hypothalamus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78: 6517-6521.
  • Sumanasekera C, Watt DS, Stamm S (2008) Substances that can change alternative splice-site selection. Biochem Soc Trans 36: 483-490.
  • Sydow S, Radulovic J, Dautzenberg FM, Spiess J (1997) Structure-function relationship of different domains of the rat corticotropin-releasing factor receptor. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 52: 182-193.
  • Sztainberg Y, Kuperman Y, Issler O, Gil S, Vaughan J, Rivier J, Vale W, Chen A (2009) A novel corticotropin-releasing factor receptor splice variant exhibits dominant negative activity: a putative link to stress-induced heart disease. Faseb J 23: 2186-2196.
  • Tache Y, Bonaz B (2007) Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors and stress-related alterations of gut motor function. J Clin Invest 117: 33-40.
  • Teli T, Markovic D, Hewitt ME, Levine MA, Hillhouse EW, Grammatopoulos DK (2008) Structural domains determining signalling characteristics of the CRH-receptor type 1 variant R1beta and response to PKC phosphorylation. Cell Signal 20: 40-49.
  • Theoharides TC, Donelan JM, Papadopoulou N, Cao J, Kempuraj D, Conti P (2004) Mast cells as targets of corticotropin-releasing factor and related peptides. Trends Pharmacol Sci 25: 563-568.
  • Tsai-Morris CH, Buczko E, Geng Y, Gamboa-Pinto A, Dufau ML (1996) The genomic structure of the rat corticotropin releasing factor receptor. A member of the class II G protein-coupled receptors. J Biol Chem 271: 14519-14525.
  • Turnbull AV, Rivier CL (1999) Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by cytokines: actions and mechanisms of action. Physiol Rev 79: 1-71.
  • Vale W, Spiess J, Rivier C, Rivier J (1981) Characterization of a 41-residue ovine hypothalamic peptide that stimulates secretion of corticotropin and β-endorphin. Science 213: 1394-1397.
  • Vale WW, Bale TL, Lee K-F, Smith GW (2004) Corticotropin releasing factor receptor 2 deficient mice and uses thereof. US Patent 20040034882.
  • Van Pett K, Viau V, Bittencourt JC, Chan RK, Li HY, Arias C, Prins GS, Perrin M, Vale W, Sawchenko PE (2000) Distribution of mRNAs encoding CRF receptors in brain and pituitary of rat and mouse. J Comp Neurol 428: 191-212.
  • Wasserman D, Sokolowski M, Rozanov V, Wasserman J (2008) The CRHR1 gene: a marker for suicidality in depressed males exposed to low stress. Genes Brain Behav 7: 14-19.
  • Webster EL, Lewis DB, Torpy DJ, Zachman EK, Rice KC, Chrousos GP (1996) In vivo and in vitro characterization of antalarmin, a nonpeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor antagonist: suppression of pituitary ACTH release and peripheral inflammation. Endocrinology 137: 5747-5750.
  • Wei ET, Thomas HA (1994) Correlation of neuroendocrine and anti-edema activities of alanine-corticotropin-releasing factor analogs. Eur J Pharmacol 263: 319-321.
  • Wei E, Slominski A (2002) Inhibition of abnormal cell growth with corticotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Patent US 2002142962; WO0153777.
  • Wiesner B, Roloff B, Fechner K, Slominski A (2003) Intracellular calcium measurements of single human skin cells after stimulation with corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin using confocal laser scanning microscopy. J Cell Sci 116: 1261-1268.
  • Xiong Y, Xie LY, Abou-Samra AB (1995) Signaling properties of mouse and human corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors: decreased coupling efficiency of human type II CRF receptor. Endocrinology 136: 1828-1834.
  • Young SF, Griffante C, Aguilera G (2007) Dimerization between vasopressin V1b and corticotropin releasing hormone type 1 receptors. Cell Mol Neurobiol 27: 439-461.
  • Zbytek B, Slominski AT (2005) Corticotropin-releasing hormone induces keratinocyte differentiation in the adult human epidermis. J Cell Physiol 203: 118-126.
  • Zbytek B, Slominski AT (2007) CRH mediates inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide in human adult epidermal keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol 127: 730-732.
  • Zbytek B, Pfeffer LM, Slominski AT (2003) Corticotropin-releasing hormone inhibits nuclear factorκB pathway in human HaCaT keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol 121: 1496-1499.
  • Zbytek B, Pfeffer LM, Slominski AT (2004) Corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulates NFκB in human epidermal keratinocytes. J Endocrinol 181: R1-7.
  • Zbytek B, Pikula M, Slominski RM, Mysliwski A, Wei E, Wortsman J, Slominski AT (2005) Corticotropin-releasing hormone triggers differentiation in HaCaT keratinocytes. Br J Dermatol 152: 474-480.
  • Zbytek B, Pfeffer LM, Slominski AT (2006a) CRH inhibits NFκB signaling in human melanocytes. Peptides 27: 3276-3283.
  • Zbytek B, Wortsman J, Slominski A (2006b) Characterization of a ultraviolet B-induced corticotropin-releasing hormone-proopiomelanocortin system in human melanocytes. Mol Endocrinol 20: 2539-2547.
  • Zhao J, Karalis KP (2002) Regulation of nuclear factor κB by corticotropin-releasing hormone in mouse thymocytes. Mol Endocrinol 16: 2561-2570.
  • Zmijewski MA, Slominski AT (2009a) CRF1 receptor splicing in epidermal keratinocytes: potential biological role and environmental regulations. J Cell Physiol 218: 593-602.
  • Zmijewski MA, Slominski AT (2009b) Modulation of CRF singaling throught receptor splicing in mouse AtT-20 pituitary cells - Emerging role of soluble isoforms. J Physiol Pharmacol 60: 39-46.
  • Zmijewski MA, Sharma RK, Slominski AT (2007) Expression of molecular equivalent of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult retinal pigment epithelium. J Endocrinol 193: 157-169.
  • Zouboulis CC, Seltmann H, Hiroi N, Chen W, Young M, Oeff M, Scherbaum WA, Orfanos CE, McCann SM, Bornstein SR (2002) Corticotropin-releasing hormone: an autocrine hormone that promotes lipogenesis in human sebocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 7148-7153.
  • Zoumakis E, Rice KC, Gold PW, Chrousos GP (2006) Potential uses of corticotropin-releasing hormone antagonists. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1083: 239-251.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-abpv57p1kz
Identifiers
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.