Novel galactonic acid-binding hexameric lectin from Hibiscus mutabilis seeds with antiproliferative and potent HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities
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A hexameric 150-kDa lectin was isolated from dried Hibiscus mutabilis seeds using a chromatographic protocol that involved ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration on Superdex 75 and Superdex 200. The lectin was not adsorbed on SP-Sepharose and was eluted from the Superdex 75 column in the void volume. It was eluted in the first peak from Superdex 200. It was strongly adsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose and could not be easily desorbed. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin, which was stable at pH 4-7 and up to 50°C, could be inhibited by 25 mM galactonic acid. This is the first report of a galactonic acid-binding lectin. It potently inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 0.2 µM. It exhibited weak antiproliferative activity towards both hepatoma HepG2 cells (40% inhibition) and breast cancer MCF-7 cells (50% inhibition) at 100 µM concentration of the lectin. It did not inhibit mycelial growth of a number of fungi tested.
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