Kinetin affects the level of chloroplast polyamines and transglutaminase activity during senescence of barley leaves
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We analysed the level of polyamines (PAs) bound to thylakoids and the level and activity of thylakoid transglutaminases throughout barley leaf senescence, retarded by kinetin. The level of PAs bound to thylakoids changed in senescing barley leaves: bound putrescine (PU) and spermidine (SD) increased throughout senescence, whereas bound spermine (SM) decreased. Kinetin diminished the increase in thylakoid-bound PU and SD and almost completely abolished the decrease of the bound SM. These data suggest different roles of PU/SD and SM in thylakoid degradation. Immunodetection of transglutaminases (TGase) in thylakoid fraction revealed three bands of 33, 58 and 78 kDa. During senescence the intensity of all bands increased and it was correlated with an increase in TGase activity. Kinetin down-regulated the accumulation of the 58- and 78-kDa TGases and the TGase activity. We postulate that formation of covalent bonds between PAs and proteins by TGase is involved in chloroplast senescence. The kinetin-mediated preservation of low TGase levels and activity throughout leaf senescence may represent an important component of the mechanism of kinetin action in the retardation of leaf senescence.
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