Practical highly enantioselective synthesis of (R)- and (S)-(E)-4-hydroxynon-2-enal
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Oxidative stress enhances lipid peroxidation (LPO) implicated in cancer promotion and progression. (E)-4-Hydroxynon-2-enal 1 (trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, HNE) is one of the most abundant products of LPO. Reactions of HNE with DNA and proteins are responsible for its mutagenic and toxic effects. On the other hand, HNE is regarded as a key molecule in stress mediated cell cycle signaling. LPO generates racemic HNE (rac-1); however, it is expected that the individual enantiomers will behave differently in their interactions with cell components. The study of HNE stereochemistry in its chemical and biochemical interactions is hindered by the lack of expedient methods for preparation of pure enantiomers. This study presents one step synthesis of HNE in a cross-metathesis reaction between the commercially available oct-1-en-3-ol and acrolein in the presence of 2nd generation Grubbs catalyst. The use in the metathesis reaction of enantiomers of oct-1-en-3-ol obtained via Candida antarctica lipase resolution of the racemate allowed us to prepare of 4-(R)- and 4-(S)-enantiomers of HNE (R-1 and S-1, respectively) with excellent optical purity (97.5 and 98.4% ee, respectively) and good chemical yields (70%).
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