The role of alkyl chain length in the inhibitory effect n-alkyl xanthates on mushroom tyrosinase activities
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Sodium salts of four n-alkyl xanthate compounds, C2H5OCS2Na (I), C3H7OCS2Na (II), C4H9OCS2Na (III), and C6H13OCS2Na (IV) were synthesized and examined for inhibition of both cresolase and catecholase activities of mushroom tyrosinase (MT) in 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, at 293 K using UV spectrophotemetry. 4-[(4-methylbenzo)azo]-1,2-benzendiol (MeBACat) and 4-[(4-methylphenyl)azo]-phenol (MePAPh) were used as synthetic substrates for the enzyme for catecholase and cresolase reactions, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk plots showed different patterns of mixed, competitive or uncompetitive inhibition for the four xanthates. For the cresolase activity, I and II showed uncompetitive inhibition but III and IV showed competitive inhibition pattern. For the catecholase activity, I and II showed mixed inhibition but III and IV showed competitive inhibition. The synthesized compounds can be classified as potent inhibitors of MT due to their Ki values of 13.8, 11, 8 and 5 µM for the cresolase activity, and 1.4, 5, 13 and 25 µM for the catecholase activity for I, II, III and IV, respectively. For the catecholase activity both substrate and inhibitor can be bound to the enzyme with negative cooperativity between the binding sites (α > 1) and this negative cooperativity increases with increasing length of the aliphatic tail of these compounds. The length of the hydrophobic tail of the xanthates has a stronger effect on the Ki values for catecholase inhibition than for cresolase inhibition. Increasing the length of the hydrophobic tail leads to a decrease of the Ki values for cresolase inhibition and an increase of the Ki values for catecholase inhibition.
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