PL EN


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2006 | 53 | 4 | 663-677
Article title

Red blood cell and plasma glutathione peroxidase activities and selenium concentration in patients with chronic kidney disease: A review

Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
The metabolism of oxygen in aerobic organisms leads to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These entities are able to oxidize almost all classes of macromolecules, including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. The physiological level of ROS is usually regulated by antioxidant defense mechanisms. There are at least three groups of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutases, catalases and glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Pxs) which neutralize ROS. The trace elements (copper, zinc and selenium) bound to the active sites of the above listed enzymes play an important role in the antioxidant defense system. In mammals, a major function of selenium (Se) and Se-dependent GSH-Pxs is to protect cells from oxidative stress. Selenium concentrations and GSH-Px activities are altered in blood components of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The Se level is frequently lower than in healthy subjects and the concentration very often decreases gradually with advancing stage of the disease. Studies on red cell GSH-Px activity in CKD patients reported its values significantly lower, significantly higher and lower or higher, but not significantly as compared with healthy subjects. On the other hand, all authors who studied plasma GSH-Px activity have shown significantly lower values than in healthy subjects. The degree of the reduction decreases gradually with the progression of the disease. High inverse correlations were seen between plasma GSH-Px activity and creatinine level. A gradual decrease in plasma GSH-Px activity in CKD patients is due to the fact that this enzyme is synthesized predominantly in the kidney and thus the impairment of this organ is the cause of the enzyme's lower activity. Se supplementation to CKD patients has a slightly positive effect in the incipient stage of the disease, but usually no effect was observed in end-stage CKD. Presently, kidney transplantation is the only treatment that may restore plasma Se level and GSH-Px activity in patients suffering from end-stage CKD. A few studies have shown that in kidney recipients, plasma Se concentration and GSH-Px activity are restored to normal values within a period of 2 weeks to 3 months following surgery and thus it can be acknowledged that Se supplementation to those patients has a positive effect on plasma GSH-Px activity.
Publisher

Year
Volume
53
Issue
4
Pages
663-677
Physical description
Dates
published
2006
received
2006-10-12
revised
2006-11-23
accepted
2006-12-07
(unknown)
2006-12-11
Contributors
  • Higher School of Health Science, Bydgoszcz, Poland
  • Department of Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland
  • Department of Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland
  • Avitum Dialysis Center, Łódź, Poland
References
  • Alaejos MS, Romero CD (1993) Urinary selenium concentrations. Clin Chem 39: 2040-2052.
  • Allan CB, Lacourciere GM, Stadtman TC (1999) Responsiveness to selenoproteins to dietary selenium. Annu Rev Nutr 19: 1-16.
  • Amann K, Tyralla K (2002) Cardiovascular changes in chronic renal failure - pathogenesis and therapy. Clin Nephrol 58: S62-S72.
  • Arthur JR, Beckett GJ (1994) Newer aspects of micronutrients in at risk groups. New metabolic roles for selenium. Proc Nutr Soc 53: 615-624.
  • Arthur JR (2000) The glutathione peroxidases. Cell Mol Life Sci 57: 1825-1835.
  • Avissar N, Ornt DB, Yagil Y, Horovitz S, Watkins RH, Kerl EA, Takahashi K, Palmer IS, Cohen HJ (1994) Human kidney proximal tubules are the main source of plasma glutathione peroxidase. Am J Physiol 266 (Cell Physiol 35): C367-C375.
  • Baynes JW, Thorpe SR (1999) Role of oxidative stress in diabetic complications. Diabetes 48: 1-9.
  • Behne D, Kyriakopoulos A (2001) Mammalian selenium-containing proteins. Annu Rev Nutr 21: 453-473.
  • Bellisola G, Perona G, Galassini S, Moschini G, Guidi GC (1993) Plasma selenium and glutathione peroxidase activities in individuals living in the Veneto region of Italy. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 7: 242-244.
  • Bonomini M, Albertazzi A (1995) Selenium in uremia. Artif Organs 19: 443-448.
  • Bonomini M, Forster S, Manfrini V, De Risio F, Steiner M, Vidovich MI, Klinkmann H, Ivanovich P, Albertazzi A (1996) Geographic factors and plasma selenium in uremia and dialysis. Nephron 72: 197-204.
  • Brown KM, Arthur JR (2001) Selenium, selenoproteins and human health: a review. Public Health Nutr 4: 593-599.
  • Burk RF, Hill KE, Motley AK (2003) Selenoprotein metabolism and function: Evidence for more than one function for selenoprotein P. J Nutr 133: 1517S-1520S.
  • Burk RE, Hill KE (2005) Selenoprotein P: an extracellular protein with unique physical characteristics and role in selenium homeostasis. Annu Rev Nutr 25: 215-235.
  • Byard JL (1969) Trimethyl selenide. A urinary metabolite of selenite. Arch Biochem Biophys 130: 556-560.
  • Canestrari F, Galli F, Giorgini A, Albertini MC, Galatia P, Pascucci M, Bossu M (1994) Erythrocyte redox state in uremic anemia: effects of hemodialysis and relevance of glutathione metabolism. Acta Haematol 91: 187-193.
  • Castro L, Freeman BA (2001) Reactive oxygen species in human health and disease. Nutrition 17: 161-165.
  • Ceballos-Picot I, Witko-Sarsat V, Merad-Boudia M, Nguyen AT, Thevenin M, Jaudon MC, Zingraff J, Verger C, Jungers P, Descamps-Latscha B (1996) Glutathione antioxidant system as a marker of oxidative stress in chronic renal failure. Free Rad Biol Med 21: 845-853.
  • Chu FF, Esworthy S, Doroshow JH, Doan K, Liu XF (1992) Expression of plasma glutathione peroxidase in human liver in addition to kidney, heart, lung, and breast in humans and rodents. Blood 79: 3233-3238.
  • Cohen HJ, Chovaniec ME, Mistretta D, Baker SS (1985) Selenium repletion and glutathione peroxidase - differential effects on plasma and red blood cell enzyme activity. Am J Clin Nutr 41: 735-747.
  • Combs GF Jr, Combs SB (1984) The nutritional biochemistry of selenium. Annu Rev Nutr 4: 257-280.
  • Cristol JP, Maggi MF, Vela C, Descomps B, Mourad G (1996) Lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in renal transplantation: implications for chronic rejection. Transplant Proc 28: 2820-2821.
  • Cristol J-P, Vela C, Maggi M-F, Descomps B, Mourad G (1998) Oxidative stress and lipid abnormalities in renal transplant recipients with or without chronic rejection. Transplantation 65: 1322-1328.
  • De Vega L, Fernandez RP, Martin Mateo MC, Bustamante J, Bustamante A, Herrero AM, Bustamante Munguira E (2003) Study of the activity of glutathione-peroxidase, glutathione-transferase, and glutathione-reductase in renal transplants. Transplant Proc 35: 1346-1350.
  • De Vega L, Fernandez RP, Martin Mateo MC, Bustamante JB, Herrero AM, Munguira EB (2002) Glutathione determination and a study of the activity of glutathione-peroxidase, glutathione-transferase, and glutathione-reductase in renal transplants. Renal Failure 24: 421-432.
  • Deagan JT, Butler JA, Zachara BA, Whanger PD (1993) Determination of the distribution of selenium between glutathione peroxidase, selenoprotein P, and albumin in plasma. Anal Biochem 208: 176-181.
  • Dworkin B, Weseley S, Rosenthal WS, Schwartz EM, Weiss L (1987) Diminished blood selenium levels in renal failure patients on dialysis: correlations with nutritional status. Am J Med Sci 293: 6-12.
  • Fantel AG (1996) Reactive oxygen species in developmental toxicity: Review and hypothesis. Teratology 53: 196-217.
  • Fernandez RP, Martin-Mateo MC, De Vega L, Bustamante J, Herrero M, Bustamante Munguira E (2002) Antioxidant enzyme determination and a study of lipid peroxidation in renal transplantation. Renal Failure 24: 353-359.
  • Flohe L, Gunzler WA, Schock HH (1973) Glutathione peroxidase: a selenoenzyme. FEBS Lett 32: 132-134.
  • Foote JW, Hinks LJ, Lloyd B (1987) Reduced plasma and white blood cell selenium levels in haemodialysis patients. Clin Chim Acta 164: 323-328.
  • Francesconi K (2006) Urinary excretion of selenium. In 8th Int Symp on Selenium in Biology and Medicine, University of Madison, Madison, WI, USA, July 26-30, 2006, Conference Book p 21.
  • Francesconi KA, Pannier F (2004) Selenium metabolites in urine: A critical overview of past work and current status. Clin Chem 50: 2240-2253.
  • Galli F, Canestrari F, Buoncristiani U (1999) Biological effects of oxidant stress in haemodialysis: The possible roles of vitamin E. Blood Purif 17: 79-94.
  • Girelli D, Olivieri O, Stanzial AM, Azzini M, Lupo A, Bernich P, Menini C, Gammaro L, Corrocher R (1993) Low platelet glutathione peroxidase activity and serum selenium concentration in patients with chronic renal failure: relations to dialysis treatments, diet and cardiovascular complications. Clin Sci 84: 611-617.
  • Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D, McCulloch CE, Hsu C-Y (2004) Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. N Engl J Med 351: 1296-1305.
  • Grignard E, Morin J, Vernet P, Drevet JR (2005) GPX5 orthologs of the mouse epididymis-restricted and sperm-bound selenium-independent glutathione peroxidase are not expressed with the same quantitative and spatial characteristics in large domestic animals. Theriogenology 64: 1016-1033.
  • Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1989) Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Hussein O, Rosenblat M, Refael G, Aviram M (1997) Dietary selenium increases cellular glutathione peroxidase activity and reduces the enhanced susceptibility to lipid peroxidation of plasma and low-density lipoprotein in kidney transplant recipients. Transplantation 63: 679-685.
  • Iwanier K, Zachara BA (1995) Selenium supplementation enhances the element concentration in blood and seminal fluid but does not change the spermatozoa quality characteristics in subfertile men. J Androl 16: 441-447.
  • Jamieson D (1989) Oxygen toxicity and reactive oxygen metabolites in mammals. Free Radic Biol Med 7: 87-108.
  • Joseph M (1995) The generation of free radicals by blood platelets. In Immunology of Platelets (Joseph M, ed) pp 209-225. Academic Press, London-Toronto.
  • Juskowa J, Paczek L, Laskowska-Klita T, Gajewska J, Oldakowska-Jedynak U, Szymczak E, Foroncewicz B, Chelchowska M, Mucha K (2000) Antioxidant potential in renal allograft recipients with stable graft function. Transplant Proc 32: 1353-1357.
  • Kallistratos G, Evangelou A, Seferiadis K, Vezyraki P, Barboutis K (1985) Selenium and haemodialysis: serum selenium levels in healthy persons, non-cancer and cancer patients with chronic renal failure. Nephron 41: 217-222.
  • Kasiske BL (2002) Cyclosporine and lipid peroxidation. Am J Kidney Dis 31: 149-154.
  • Kim YH, Mun KC, Lee SS, Seo SH, Kwak CS, Park SB, Kim HC (2000) Oxidative damage in renal transplant patients. Transplant Proc 32: 1777-1778.
  • Kobayashi Y, Ogra Y, Ishiwata K, Takayama H, Aimi N, Suzuki KT (2002) Selenosugars are key and urinary metabolites for selenium excretion within the required to low-toxic range. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 15932-15936.
  • Koenig JS, Fischer M, Bulant E, Tiran B, Elmadfa I, Druml W (1997) Antioxidant status in patients on chronic hemodialysis therapy: impact of parenteral selenium supplementation. Wien Klin Wochenschr 109: 13-19.
  • Kohrle J (2004) Selenium in biology and medicine - further progress and increasing interest. J Trace Elem Med Biol 18: 61-63.
  • Kryukov GV, Castellano S, Novoselov SV, Lobanov AV, Zehtab O, Guigo R, Gladyshev VN (2003) Characterization of mammalian selenoproteomes. Science 300: 1439-1443.
  • Kuehnelt D, Juresa D, Kienzl N, Francesconi KA (2006) Marked individual variability in the levels of trimethylselenonium ion in human urine determined by HPLC/ICPMS and HPLC/vapor generation ICPMS. Anal Bioanal Chem 386: 2207-2212.
  • Kuroda M, Imura T, Morikawa K, Hasegawa T (1988) Decreased serum levels of selenium and glutathione peroxidase activity associated with aging, malignancy and chronic hemodialysis. Trace Elem Med 5: 97-103.
  • Lachili B, Arnaud J, Coudray C, Zama N, Roussel AM, Benlatreche C, Favier A (1996) Serum trace elements (Cu, Zn, Se, and Al) and thiobarbituric acid reactants (TBARS) in hemodialysis patients from Batna (Algeria); In Therapeutic Uses of Trace Elements (Neve J, ed) pp 185-188. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Lim P-S, Cheng Y-M, Wei Y-H (2002) Increase in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in skeletal muscle of uremic patients. Free Radic Res 36: 295-301.
  • Lindner A, Farewell VT, Sherrard DJ (1981) High incidence of neoplasia in uremic patients receiving long-term dialysis. Cancer and long-term dialysis. Nephron 27: 292-296.
  • Lockitch G (1989) Selenium: Clinical significance and analytical concepts. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 27: 483-541.
  • Loughrey CM, Young IS, Lightbody JH, McMaster D, McNamee PT, Trimble ER (1994) Oxidative stress in haemodialysis. Q J M 87: 679-683.
  • Marchante-Gayon JM, Sanchez-Uria JE, Sanz-Mede A (1996) Serum and tissue selenium contents related to renal disease and colon cancer as determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. J Trace Elem Med Biol 10: 229-236.
  • Martin-Mateo MC, Del Canto-Jafiez E, Barrero-Martinez MJ (1998) Oxidative stress and enzyme activity in ambulatory renal failure patients undergoing continuous peritoneal dialysis. Renal Failure 20: 117-124.
  • Martin-Mateo MC, Sanchez-Portugal M, Iglesias S, De Paula A, Bustamante J (1999) Oxidative stress in chronic renal failure. Renal Failure 21: 155-167.
  • Marx L (1987) Oxygen free radicals linked to many diseases. Science 30: 529-531.
  • Medina D, Thompson H, Ganther H, Ip C (2001) Se-methylselenocysteine: a new compound for chemoprevention of breast cancer. Nutr Cancer 40: 12-17.
  • Meier B (2001) Reactive oxygen intermediates involved in cellular regulation. Protoplasma 217: 101-116.
  • Meister A (1984) New developments in glutathione metabolism and their potential application in therapy. Hepatology 4: 739-742.
  • Mills GC (1957) Hemoglobin catabolism. I. Glutathione peroxidase, an erythrocyte enzyme which protects hemoglobin from oxidative breakdown. J Biol Chem 229: 189-197.
  • Milly K, Wit L, Diskin C, Tulley R (1992) Selenium in renal failure patients. Nephron 61: 139-144.
  • Mimic-Oka J, Djukanovic L, Simic T, Stefanovski J, Ramic Z (1991) Glutathione and its associated enzymes in chronic renal failure. Amino Acids 1: 169-170.
  • Morris-Stiff GJ, Oleesky DA, Smith SC, Jurewicz WA (2004) Sequential changes in plasma selenium concentration after cadaveric renal transplantation. Br J Surg 91: 339-343.
  • Neve J (1991) Physiological and nutritional importance of selenium. Experientia 47: 187-193.
  • Olson OE, Palmer IS (1984) Selenium in foods purchased or produced in South Dakota. Food Sci 49: 446-452.
  • Palmer IS, Fischer DD, Halverson AW, Olson OE (1969) Identification of a major selenium excretory product in rat urine. Biochim Biophys Acta 177: 336-342.
  • Palmer IS, Gunsalus RP, Halverson AW, Olson OE (1970) Trimethylselenonium ion as a general excretory product from selenium metabolism in the rat urine. Biochim Biophys Acta 208: 260-266.
  • Pasaoglu H, Muhtaroglu S, Gunes M, Utas C (1996) The role of the oxidative state of glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes in anemia of hemodialysis patients. Clin Biochem 29: 567-572.
  • Patching SG, Gardiner PHE (1999) Recent developments in selenium metabolism and chemical speciation: A review. J Trace Elem Med Biol 13: 193-214.
  • Read R, Bellew T, Yang J-G, Hill KE, Palmer IS, Burk RF (1990) Selenium and amino acid composition of selenoprotein P, the major selenoprotein in rat serum. J Biol Chem 265: 17899-17905.
  • Richard MJ, Arnaud J, Jurkovitz C, Hachache T, Meftachi H, Laporte F, Foret M, Favier A, Corolonnier D (1991) Trace elements and lipid peroxidation abnormalities in patients with chronic renal failure. Nephron 57: 10-15.
  • Richard MJ, Ducros V, Foret M, Arnaud J, Coudray C, Fusselier M, Favier A (1993) Reversal of selenium and zinc deficiencies in chronic hemodialysis patients by intravenous sodium selenite and zinc gluconate supplementation. Biol Trace Elem Res 39: 149-159.
  • Robberecht HJ, Deelstra HA (1984) Selenium in human urine: concentration levels and medical implications. Clin Chim Acta 136: 107-120.
  • Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Swanson A, Hafeman DG, Hoekstra WG (1973) Selenium - biological role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science 179: 588-590.
  • Roxborough HE, Mercer C, McMaster D, Young IS (1999) Plasma glutathione peroxidase activity is reduced in haemodialysis patients. Nephron 81: 278-283.
  • Saint-Georges MD, Bonnefont DJ, Bourely BA, Jaudon M-CT, Cereze P, Chaumeil P, Gard C, D'Auzac CL (1989) Correction of selenium deficiency in hemodialyzed patients. Kidney Int Suppl 27: S274-S277.
  • Saito T, Takahashi K (2000) Selenoprotein P: Its structure and functions. J Health Sci 46: 409-413.
  • Schiavon R, Guidi GC, Biasioli S, De Fanti E, Targa L (1994) Plasma glutathione peroxidase activity as an index of renal function. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 32: 759-765.
  • Simic-Ogrizovic S, Simic T, Reljic Z, Markovic S, Blagojevic R, Radivojevic D, Lezaic V, Djukanovic LJ, Mimic-Oka J (1998) Markers of oxidative stress after renal transplantation. Transpl Int 11 (Suppl. 1): S125-S129.
  • Sommerburg O, Grune T, Ehrich JHH, Siems WG (2002) Adaptation of glutathione peroxidase activity to oxidative tress occurs in children but not in adult patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing hemodialysis. Clin Nephrol 58 (Suppl 1): S31-S36.
  • Stachowska E, Wesolowska T, Olszewska M, Safranow K, Millo B, Domanski L, Jakubowska K, Ciechanowski K, Chlubek D (2005) Elements of Mediterranean diet improves oxidative status in blood of kidney graft recipients. Br J Nutr 93: 345-352.
  • Stanczyk M, Gromadzinska J, Wasowicz W (2005) Roles of reactive oxygen species and selected antioxidants in regulation of cellular metabolism. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 18: 15-26.
  • Suzuki KT (2005) Metabolomics of selenium: Se metabolites based on speciation studies. J Health Sci 51: 107-114.
  • Suzuki K (2006) Metabolomics of selenium with multiple stable isotopes. In 8th Int Symp on Selenium in Biology and Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA, July 25-30, 2006, Conference Book p 20.
  • Suzuki KT, Kurasaki K, Okazaki N, Ogra Y (2005) Selenosugar and trimethylselenonium among urinary Se metabolites: dose- and age-related changes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 206: 1-8.
  • Takahashi K, Avissar N, Whitin J, Cohen HJ (1987) Purification and characterization of human plasma glutathione peroxidase: a selenoglycoprotein distinct from the known cellular enzyme. Arch Biochem Biophys 256: 677-686.
  • Takahashi K, Cohen HJ (1986) Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase protein and activity: immunological investigation on cellular and plasma enzymes. Blood 68: 640-645.
  • Takahashi K, Newburger PE, Cohen HJ (1986) Glutathione peroxidase protein. Absence in selenium deficiency states and correlation with enzymatic activity. J Clin Invest 77: 1402-1404.
  • Trafikowska U, Sobkowiak E, Butler JA, Whanger PD, Zachara BA (1998) Organic and inorganic selenium supplementation to lactating mothers increase the blood and milk Se concentrations and Se intake by breast-fed infants. J Trace Elem Med Biol 12: 77-85.
  • Trafikowska U, Zachara BA (1998) Selenium and some antioxidants in blood of patients with chronic renal failure. Pol Merkur Lekarski 5: 178-182 (in Polish).
  • Tsukamoto Y, Iwamami S, Marumo F (1980) Disturbance of trace element concentrations in plasma of patients with chronic renal failure. Nephron 26: 174-179.
  • Turan B, Delilbasi E, Dalay N, Sert S, Afrasyap L, Sayal A (1992) Serum selenium and glutathione peroxidase activities and their interaction with toxic metals in dialysis and renal transplantation patients. Biol Trace Elem Res 33: 95-102.
  • Vamvakas S, Bahner U, Heidland A (1998) Cancer in end-stage renal disease: potential factors involved. Am J Nephrol 18: 89-95.
  • Van der Torre HW, Dokkum WV, Schaafsma G, Wedel M, Ockhuizen T (1991) Effect of various levels of selenium in wheat and meat on blood Se status and on Se balance in Dutch men. Br J Nutr 65: 69-80.
  • Vanella A, Geremia E, Pinturo R, Tiriolo P, Liuzzo G, Tiriolo C, Custorella A, Condorelli G, Giglio A (1983) Superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione content in erythrocytes of uremic patients on chronic dialysis. Acta Haematol 70: 312-315.
  • Vural A, Yilmaz MI, Calgar K, Aydin A, Sonmez A, Eyileten T, Acikel C, Gulec B, Kozak O, Oner K (2005) Assessment of oxidative stress in the early posttransplant period: Comparison of cyclosporine A and tacrolimus-based regiments. Am J Nephrol 25: 250-255.
  • Wastney M, Combs G, Patterson K, Veillon C, Levander O, Taylor P, Patterson B (2006) Selenium metabolism in humans: Linking biology and kinetics. In 8th Int Symp on Selenium in Biology and Medicó University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA, July 25-30, 2006, p 34.
  • Whitin JC, Tham DM, Bhamre S, Ornt DB, Scandling JD, Tune BM, Salvatierra O, Avissar N, Cohen HJ (1998) Plasma glutathione peroxidase and its relationship to renal proximal tubule function. Mol Genet Metab 65: 238-245.
  • Wlodarczyk Z, Zachara BA, Masztalerz M, Wasowicz W, Gromadzinska J (2003) Selenium, glutathione peroxidases and some other parameters in blood of patients after kidney transplantation. In 4th International Symposium on Trace Elements in Human: New Perspectives. Proceedings Book, part I. Pollet S, ed, pp 75-90, Athens, Greece.
  • Wlodarczyk Z, Zachara BA, Masztalerz M, Wasowicz W, Gromadzinska J (2005) Influence of selenium supplementation to renal allograft recipients on plasma glutathione peroxidase activity. Trace Elem Electrolytes 22: 16-22.
  • Yang G, Zhou R, Yin S, Gu L, Yan B, Liu Y, Liu Y, Li X (1989) Studies of safe maximal daily dietary selenium intake in a seleniferous area in China. I. Selenium intake and tissue selenium levels of the inhabitants. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 3: 77-87.
  • Yoshimura S, Suemizu H, Nomoto Y, Sakai H, Katsuoka Y, Kawamura N, Moriuchi T (1996) Plasma glutathione peroxidase deficiency caused by renal dysfunction. Nephron 73: 207-211.
  • Young IS, Woodside JV (2001) Antioxidants in health and disease. J Clin Pathol 54: 176-186.
  • Zachara BA (1992) Mammalian selenoproteins. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 6: 137-151.
  • Zachara BA, Adamowicz A, Trafikowska U, Pilecki A (2000a) Decreased plasma glutathione peroxidase activity in uremic patients. Nephron 84: 278-279.
  • Zachara BA, Adamowicz A, Trafikowska U, Trafikowska A, Manitius J (2000b) Blood selenium and glutathione peroxidase activity in patients with different stages of chronic renal failure. In Mengen- und Spurenelemente. 20. Arbeitstagung 2000 Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat. (Anke M et al., eds) pp 940-947. Jena, Germany.
  • Zachara BA, Adamowicz A, Trafikowska U, Trafikowska A, Manitius J, Nartowicz E (2001a) Selenium and glutathione levels, and glutathione peroxidase activities in blood components of uremic patients on hemodialysis supplemented with selenium and treated with erythropoietin. J Trace Elem Med Biol 15: 201-208,
  • Zachara BA, Pawluk H, Bloch-Boguslawska E, Sliwka KM, Korenkiewicz J, Skok Z, Ryc K (2001b) Tissue level, distribution, and total body selenium content in healthy and diseased humans in Poland. Arch Environ Health 56: 461-466.
  • Zachara BA, Trafikowska U, Adamowicz A, Nartowicz E, Manitius J (2001c) Selenium, glutathione peroxidases, and some other parameters in blood of patients with chronic renal failure. J Trace Elem Med Biol 15: 161-166.
  • Zachara BA, Koterska D, Manitius J, Sadowski L, Dziedziczko A, Salak A, Wasowicz >W (2004a) Selenium supplementation to patients with the end stage of chronic renal failure has no effect on the increase of lowered plasma glutathione peroxidase activity. Biol Trace Elem Res 97: 15-30.
  • Zachara BA, Salak A, Koterska D, Manitius J, Wasowicz W (2004b) Selenium and glutathione peroxidases in blood of patients with different stages of chronic renal failure. J Trace Elem Med Biol 17: 291-299.
  • Zachara BA, Wlodarczyk Z, Masztalerz M, Adamowicz A, Gromadzinska J, Wasowicz >W (2004c) Selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activities in blood of patients before and after allogenic kidney transplantation. Biol Trace Elem Res 97: 1-13.
  • Zachara BA, Wlodarczyk Z, Andruszkiewicz J, Gromadzinska J, Wasowicz W (2005) Glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activities in blood of patients in early stages following kidney transplantation. Renal Failure 27: 751-755.
  • Zima T, Mestek O, Nemecek, Bartova V, Fialova F, Tesar V, Suchanek M (1998) Trace elements in hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Blood Purif 16: 253-260.
  • Zwolinska D, Grzeszczak W, Kilis-Pstrucinska K, Szprynger K, Szczepanska M (2004) Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in children with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 19: 888-892.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-abpv53p663kz
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.