Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2004 | 51 | 4 | 897-905
Article title

Non-random base composition in codons of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in vertebrates.

Title variants
Languages of publication
Cytochrome b is the central catalytic subunit of the quinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase of complex III of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system and is essential to the viability of most eukaryotic cells. Partial cytochrome b gene sequences of 14 species representing mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians are presented here including some species typical for Poland. For the analysed species a comparative analysis of the natural variation in the gene was performed. This information has been used to discuss some aspects of gene sequence - protein function relationships. Review of relevant literature indicates that similar comparisons have been made only for basic mammalian species. Moreover, there is little information about the Polish-specific species. We observed that there is a strong non-random distribution of nucleotides in the cytochrome b sequence in all tested species with the highest differences at the third codon position. This is also the codon position of the strongest compositional bias. Some tested species, representing distant systematic groups, showed unique base composition differing from the others. The quail, frog, python and elk prefer C over A in the light DNA strand. Species belonging to the artiodactyls stand out from the remaining ones and contain fewer pyrimidines. The observed overall rate of amino acid identity is about 61%. The region covering Qo center as well as histidines 82 and 96 (heme ligands) are totally conserved in all tested species. Additionally, the applied method and the sequences can also be used for diagnostic species identification by veterinary and conservation agencies.
Physical description
  • Department of Animal Immunogenetics, Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jastrzębiec, Poland
  • The Ludwik Rydygier University School of Medical Sciences, Forensic Medicine Institute, Bydgoszcz, Poland
  • Anderson S, Bankier AT, Barrell BG, De Bruijn MHL, Coulson AR, Drouin J, Eperon IC, Nierlich DP, Roe BA, Sanger F, Schreier PH, Smith AJH, Staden R, Young IG. (1981) Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome.Nature.; 290: 457-65.
  • Bartlett SE, Davidson WS. (1992) FINS (forensically informative nucleotide sequencing): A procedure for identifying the animal origin of biological specimens. BioTechniques.; 12: 408-11.
  • Brasseur G, Brivet-Chevillotte P, Lemesle-Meunier D, Di Rago JP. (1999) The bc1 complex in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In Mitochondrial Diseases. Models and Methods. Liestienne P. ed., pp 97-113. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg.
  • Brasseur R. (1988) Calculation of three-dimentional structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytochrome b inserted in a lipid matrix. J Biol Chem.; 263: 12571-5.
  • Brown WM. (1985) The mitochondrial genome of animals. In Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. MacIntyre RJ. ed., pp 95-130. Plenum Press, New York, London.
  • di Rago JP, Netter P, Slonimski PP. (1990) Pseudo-wild type revertants from inactive apocytochrome b mutants as a tool for the analysis of the structure/function relationships of the mitochondrial ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem.; 265: 3332-9.
  • Fukuda M, Wakasugi S, Tsuzuki T, Nomiyama H, Shimada K, Miyata T. (1985) Mitochondrial DNA-like sequences in the human nuclear genome. Characterization and implications in the evolution of mitochondrial DNA. J Mol Biol.; 186: 257-66.
  • Hall TA. (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser.; 41: 95-8.
  • Hatefi Y. (1985) The mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation system. Annu Rev Biochem.; 54: 1015-69.
  • Howell N, Gilbert K. (1988) Mutational analysis of the mouse mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. J Mol Biol.; 203: 607-18.
  • Howell N. (1989) Evolutionary conservation of protein regions in the proton-motive cytochrome b and their possible roles in redox catalysis. J Mol Evol.; 29: 157-69.
  • Irwin DM, Kocher TD, Wilson AC. (1991) Evolution of the cytochrome b gene of mammals. J Mol Evol.; 32: 128-44.
  • Kocher TD, Thomas WK, Meyer A, Edwards SV, Paabo S, Villablanca FX, Wilson AC. (1989) Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.; 86: 6196-200.
  • Lestienne P, Bouzidi M, Desguerre I, Ponsot G. (1999) Molecular basis of mitochondrial diseases. In Mitochondrial Diseases. Models and Methods. Lestienne P. ed., pp 33-58. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg.
  • Li WH, Lou CC, Wu CI. (1985) Evolution of DNA sequences. In Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. MacIntyre RJ. ed., pp 1-94. Plenum Press, New York, London.
  • Montgelard C, Catzeflis FM, Douzery E. (1997) Phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from comparison of cytochrome b and 12S rRNA mitochondrial sequences. Mol Biol Evol.; 14: 550-9.
  • Parson W, Pegoraro K, Niederstatter H, Foger M, Steinlechner M. (2000) Species identification by means of the cytochrome b gene. Int J Legal Med.; 114: 23-8.
  • Prusak B, Grzybowski G, Zieba G. (2004) Taxonomic position of Bison bison (Linnaeus, 1758) and Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758) based on analysis of cytb gene. Anim Sc Pap Rep.; 22: 27-35.
  • Shoffner JM, Wallace DC. (1990) Oxidative phosphorylation diseases: disorders of 2 genomes. Adv Hum Genet.; 19: 267-73.
  • Sueoka N. (1988) Directional mutation pressure and neutral molecular evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.; 85: 2653-7.
  • Trumpower BL. (1990) Cytochrome-bc1 complexes of microorganisms. Microbiol. Rev.; 54: 101-29.
  • Wilson MR., Polanskey D, Butler J, DiZinno JA, Repogle J, Budowle B. (1995) Extractoin, PCR amplification, and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA from human hair shafts. Biotechniques.; 18: 662-9.
  • Zehner R, Zimmermann S, Mebs D. (1998) RFLP and sequence analysis of the cytochrome b gene of selected animals and man: methodology and forensic application. Int J Legal Med.; 111: 323-7.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.