Tissue-specific effect of refeeding after short- and long-term caloric restriction on malic enzyme gene expression in rat tissues.
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Restricting food intake to a level below that consumed voluntarily (85%, 70% and 50% of the ad libitum energy intake for 3 or 30 days) and re-feeding ad libitum for 48 h results in an increase of malic enzyme (ME) gene expression in rat white adipose tissue. The increase of ME gene expression was much more pronounced in rats maintained on restricted diet for 30 days than for 3 days. The changes in ME gene expression resembled the changes in the content of SREBP-1 in white adipose tissue. A similar increase of serum insulin concentration was observed in all groups at different degrees of caloric restriction and refed ad libitum for 48 h. Caloric restriction and refeeding caused on increase of ME activity also in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver. However, in liver a significant increase of ME activity was found only in rats maintained on the restricted diet for 30 days. No significant changes after caloric restriction and refeeding were found in heart, skeletal muscle, kidney cortex, and brain. These data indicate that the increase of ME gene expression after caloric restriction/refeeding occurs only in lipogenic tissues. Thus, one can conclude that caloric restriction/refeeding increases the enzymatic capacity for fatty acid biosynthesis.
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