Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2004 | 51 | 1 | 9-31
Article title

Production of functional transgenic mice by DNA pronuclear microinjection.

Title variants
Languages of publication
Successful experiments involving the production of transgenic mice by pronuclear microinjection are currently limited by low efficiency of random transgene integration into the mouse genome. Furthermore, not all transgenic mice express integrated transgenes, or in other words are effective as functional transgenic mice expressing the desired product of the transgene, thus allowing accomplishment of the ultimate experimental goal - in vivo analysis of the function of the gene or gene network. The purpose of this review is to look at the current state of transgenic technology, utilizing a pronuclear microinjection method as the most accepted way of gene transfer into the mouse genome.
Physical description
  • Developmental Genetics Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, New York, U.S.A.
  • Albanese C, Hulit J, Sakamaki T, Pestell RG. (2002) Recent advances in inducible expression in transgenic mice. Semin Cell Dev Biol.; 13: 129-41.
  • Antoch MP, Song EJ, Chang AM, Vitaterna MH, Zhao Y, Wilsbacher LD, et al. (1997) Functional identification of the mouse circadian clock gene by transgenic BAC rescue. Cell.; 89: 655-67.
  • Auerbach AB, Norinsky R, Ho W, Losos K, Guo Q, Chatterjee S, Joyner AL. (2003) Strain-dependent differences in the efficiency of transgenic mouse production. Transgenic Res.; 12: 59-69.
  • Barthold SW. (2002) Muromics: genomics from the perspective of the laboratory mouse. Comp Med.; 52: 206-23.
  • Beddington RS, Morgernstern J, Land H, Hogan A. (1989) An in situ transgenic enzyme marker for the midgestation mouse embryo and the visualization of inner cell mass clones during early embryogenesis. Development.; 106: 37-46.
  • Beermann F, Ruppert S, Hummler E, Bosch FX, Muller G, Ruther U, Schultz G. (1990) Rescue of the albino phenotype by introduction of a functional tyrosinase gene into mice. EMBO J.; 9: 2819-26.
  • Bishop JO, Smith P. (1989) Mechanism of chromosomal integration of microinjected DNA. Mol Biol Med.; 6: 283-98.
  • Bishop JO. (1996) Chromosomal insertion of foreign DNA. Reprod Nutr Dev.; 36: 607-18.
  • Brinster RL. (1972) Cultivation of the mammalian embryo. In Growth, Nutrition and Metabolism of Cells in Culture. Rothblat G, Cristafalo V, eds, 2: pp 251-86. Academic Press, New York.
  • Brinster RL, Chen HY, Trumbauer ME, Avarbock MR. (1980) Translation of globin messenger RNA by the mouse ovum. Nature.; 283: 499-501.
  • Brinster RL, Chen HY, Trumbauer ME. (1981a) Mouse oocytes transcribe injected Xenopus 5S RNA genes. Science.; 211: 396-8.
  • Brinster RL, Chen HY, Trumbauer ME, Senear AW, Warren R, Palmiter RD. (1981b) Somatic expression of herpes thymidine kinase in mice following injection of a fusion gene into eggs. Cell.; 27: 223-31.
  • Brinster RL, Chen HY, Messing A, van Dyke T, Levine NJ, Palmiter RD. (1984) Transgenic mice harboring SV40 T-antigene genes develop characteristic brain tumors. Cell.; 37: 367-79.
  • Brinster RL, Chen HY, Trumbauer ME, Yagle MK, Palmiter RD. (1985) Factors affecting the efficiency of introducing foreign DNA into mice by microinjecting eggs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 82: 4438-42.
  • Brinster RL, Allen JM, Behringer RR, Gelinas RE, Palmiter RD. (1988) Introns increase transcriptional efficiency in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci. U S A.; 85: 836-40.
  • Brocard J, Feil R, Chambon P, Metzger D. (1998) A chimeric Cre recombinase inducible by synthetic, but not by natural ligands of the glucocorticoid receptor. Nucleic Acids Res.; 26: 4086-90.
  • Bullard DC, Weaver CT. (2002) Cutting-edge technology: IV. Genomic engineering for studies of the gastrointestinal tract in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol.; 283: G1232-7.
  • Callow MJ, Stlotzfus LJ, Lawn RM, Rubin EM. (1994) Expression of human apolipoprotein B and assembly of lipoprotein(a) in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci. U S A.; 91: 2130-4.
  • Camper SA, Saunders TL. (2000) Transgenic rescue of mutant phenotypes using large DNA fragments. In Genetic manipulation of Receptor Expression and Function. Accili D, ed, pp 1-22. Wiley, New York.
  • Canseco RS, Sparks AE, Page RL, Russell CG, Johnson JL, Velander WH, Pearson RE, Drohan WN, Gwazdauskas FC. (1994) Gene transfer efficiency during gestation and the influence of co-transfer of non-manipulated embryos on production of transgenic mice. Transgenic Res.; 3: 20-5.
  • Chada K, Magram J, Raphael G, Radice E, Lacy E, Costantini F. (1985) Specific expression of a foreign beta-globin gene in erythroid cells of transgenic mice. Nature.; 314: 377-80.
  • Choi T, Huang M, Gorman C, Jaenisch R. (1991) A generic intron increases gene expression in transgenic mice. Mol Cell Biol.; 11: 3070-7.
  • Chrast R, Scott HS, Antonarakis SE. (1999) Linearization and purification of BAC DNA for the development of transgenic mice. Transgenic Res.; 8: 147-50.
  • Chrast R, Scott HS, Madani R, Huber L, Wolfer DP, Prinz M, et al. (2000) Mice trisomic for a bacterial artificial chromosome with the single-minded 2 gene (Sim2) show phenotypes similar to some of those present in the partial trisomy 16 mouse models of Down syndrome. Hum Mol Genet.; 9: 1853-64.
  • Chung JH, Whiteley M, Felsenfeld G. (1993) A 5 element of the chicken β-globin domain serves as an insulator in human erythroid cells and protects against position effect in Drosophila. Cell.; 74: 505-14.
  • Cohen-Tannoudji M, Babinet C, Morello D. (2000) LacZ and ubiquitously expressed genes: should divorce be pronounced? Transgenic Res.; 9: 233-5.
  • Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Court DL. (2001) Recombineering: a powerful new tool for mouse functional genomics. Nat Rev Genet.; 2: 769-79.
  • Costantini F, Lacy E. (1981) Introduction of rabbit β-globin gene into the mouse germ line. Nature.; 294: 92-4.
  • Davies NP, Rosewell IR, Richardson JC, Cook GP, Neuberger MS, Brownstein BH, et al. (1993) Creation of mice expressing human antibody light chains by introduction of a yeast artificial chromosome containing the core region of the human immunoglobulin kappa locus. Bio/Technology.; 11: 911-4.
  • DePrimo SE, Stambrook PJ, Stringer JR. (1996) Human placental alkaline phosphatase as a histochemical marker of gene expression in transgenic mice. Transgenic Res.; 5: 459-66.
  • Ellis J, Pasceri P, Tan-Un KC, Wu X, Harper A, Fraser P, et al. (1997) Evaluation of beta-globin gene therapy constructs in single copy transgenic mice. Nucleic Acids Res.: 25: 1296-302.
  • Ellison AR, Wallace H, Al-Shawi R, Bishop JO. (1995) Different transmission rates of herpes virus thymidine kinase reporter transgenes from founder male parents and male parents of subsequent generations. Mol Reprod Dev.; 41: 425-34.
  • Erickson RP. (1999) Use of antisense to study gene expression. Methods.; 18: 304-10.
  • Feng D-X, Liu D-P, Huang Y, Wu L, Li T-C, Wu M, et al. (2001) The expression of human α-like globin genes in transgenic mice mediated by bacterial artificial chromosome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 98: 15073-7.
  • Folger KR, Wong EA, Wahl G, Capecchi MR. (1982) Patterns of integration of DNA microinjected into cultured mammalian cells: evidence for homologous recombination between injected plasmid DNA molecules. Mol Cell Biol.; 2: 1372-87.
  • Gama Sosa MA, De Gasperi R, Wen PH, Gonzalez EA, Kelley RA, Lazzarini RA, et al. (2002) BAC and PAC DNA for the generation of transgenic animals. BioTechniques.; 33: 51-3.
  • Ganss R, Montoliu L, Monaghan AP, Schutz G. (1994) A cell-specific enhancer far upstream of the mouse tyrosinase gene confers high level and copy number-related expression in transgenic mice. EMBO J.; 13: 3083-93.
  • Giraldo P, Montoliu L. (2001) Size matters: use of YACs, BACs and PACs in transgenic animals. Transgenic Res.; 10: 83-103.
  • Giraldo P, Rival-Gervier S, Houdebine L-M, Montoliu L. (2003) The potential benefits of insulators on heterologous constructs in transgenic animals. Transgenic Res.: 12: 751-5.
  • Gong S, Zheng C, Doughty ML, Losos K, Didkovsky N, Schambra, et al. (2003) A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes. Nature.; 425: 917-25.
  • Gordon JW, Scangos GA, Plotkin DJ, Barbosa JA, Ruddle FH. (1980) Genetic transformation of mouse embryos by microinjection of purified DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 77: 7380-4.
  • Gordon JW, Ruddle FH. (1981) Integration and stable germ line transmission of genes injected into mouse pronuclei. Science.; 214: 1244-6.
  • Gordon JW, Ruddle FH. (1985) DNA-mediated genetic transformation of mouse embryos and bone marrow - a review. Gene.; 33: 121-36.
  • Gossen M, Bujard H. (1992) Tight control of gene expression in mammalian cells by tetracycline-responsive promoters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 89: 5547-51.
  • Gossen M, Freundlieb S, Bender G, Muller G, Hillen W, Bujard H. (1995) Transcriptional activation by tetracyclines in mammalian cells. Science.; 268: 1766-9.
  • Graessmann A, Graessmann M, Guhl E, Mueller C. (1978) Quantitative correlation between simian virus 40 T-antigen synthesis and late viral gene expression in permissive and nonpermissive cells. J Cell Biol.; 77: R1-8.
  • Grosveld F, van Assendelft GB, Greaves DR, Kollias G. (1987) Position-independent, high-level expression of the human beta-globin gene in transgenic mice. Cell.; 51: 975-85.
  • Gurdon JB, Melton DA. (1981) Gene transfer in amphibian eggs and oocytes. Annu Rev Genet.; 15: 189-218.
  • Gutierrez-Adan A, Pintado B. (2000) Effect of flanking matrix regions on the expression of microinjected transgenes during preimplantation development of mouse embryos. Transgenic Res.; 9: 81-9.
  • Hammer RE, Brinster RL, Palmiter RD. (1985) Use of gene transfer to increase animal growth. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol.; 50: 379-87.
  • Hodgson JG, Smith DJ, McCutcheon K, Koide HB, Nishiyama K, Dinulos MB, et al. (1996) Human huntingtin derived from YAC transgenes compensates for loss of murine huntingtin by rescue of the embryonic lethal phenotype. Hum Mol Genet.; 5: 1875-85.
  • Hogan B, Costantini F, Lacy E. (1986) Manipulating the Mouse Embryo: A Laboratory Manual. 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor.
  • Jaenisch R. (1976) Germ line integration and Mendelian transmission of the exogenous Moloney leukemia virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 73: 1260-4.
  • Jahner D, Stuhlmann H, Stewart CL, Harbers K, Lohler J, Simon I, Jaenisch R. (1982) De novo methylation and expression of retroviral genomes during mouse embryogenesis. Nature.; 298: 623-8.
  • Kaufman RM, Pham CT, Ley TJ. (1999) Transgenic analysis of a 100-kb human beta-globin cluster-containing DNA fragment propagated as a bacterial artificial chromosome. Blood.; 94: 3178-84.
  • Keegan CE, Karolyi IJ, Burrows HL, Camper SA, Seasholtz AF. (1994) Homologous recombination in fertilized mouse eggs and assessment of heterologous locus control regions function. Transgenics.; 1: 439-49.
  • Kellendonk C, Tronche F, Casanova E, Anlag K, Opherk C, Schutz G. (1999) Inducible site-specific recombination in the brain. J Mol Biol.; 285: 175-82.
  • Kisseberth WC, Brettingen NT, Lohse JK, Sandgren EP. (1999) Ubiquitous expression of marker transgenes in mice and rats. Dev Biol.; 214: 128-38.
  • Kozak M. (1987) An analysis of 5'-noncoding sequences from 699 vertebrate messenger RNAs.. Nucleic Acids Res.; 15: 8125-48.
  • Krumlauf R, Hammer RE, Brinster RL, Chapman VM, Tilghman SM. (1985) Regulated expression of α-fetoprotein genes in transgenic mice. Nucleic Acids Res.; 14: 9667-78.
  • Kunkel TA. (1999) The high cost of living. Trends Genet.; 15: 93-4.
  • Lakso M, Sauer B, Mosinger B, Lee EJ, Manning RW, Yu SH, et al. (1992) Targeted oncogene activation by site-specific recombination in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.; 89: 6232-6.
  • Lamb BT, Bardel KA, Kulnane LS, Anderson JJ, Holtz G, Wagner SL, et al. (1999) Amyloid production and deposition in mutant amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mice. Nat Neurosci.; 2: 695-7.
  • Lacy E, Roberts S, Evans EP, Burtenshaw MD, Costantini FD. (1983) A foreign beta-globin gene in transgenic mice: integration at abnormal chromosomal positions and expression in inappropriate tissues. Cell.; 34: 343-58.
  • Linton MRF, Farese RV, Chiesa G, Grass DS, Chin P, Hammer RE, et al. (1993) Transgenic mice expressing high plasma concentrations of human apolipoprotein B100 and lipoprotein(a). J Clin Invest.; 92: 3029-37.
  • Lo C. (1986) Localization of low abundance DNA sequences in tissue sections by in situ hybridization.
  • Lois C, Hong EJ, Pease S, Brown EJ, Baltimore D. (2002) Germline transmission and tissue-specific expression of transgenes delivered by lentiviral vectors. Science.; 295: 868-72.
  • Majumder K, Shawlot W, Schuster G, Harrison W, Elder FF, Overbeek PA. (1998) YAC rescue of downless locus mutation in mice. Mamm Genome.; 9: 863-8.
  • Mann JR, McMahon AP. (1993) Factors influencing frequency production of transgenic mice. Methods Enzymol.; 225: 771-81.
  • McCormick SP, Liu CY, Young SG, Nielsen LB. (2003) Manipulating large insert clones for transgenesis. In Methods in Molecular Biology: Transgenic Mouse Methods and Protocols. Hofker MH, van Deursen J, eds, vol. 209: pp 105-23. Humana Press Inc.
  • McKnight RA, Shamay A, Sankaran L, Wall RJ, Hennighausen L. (1992) Matrix-attachment regions can impart position-independent regulation of a tissue-specific gene in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.; 89: 6943-7.
  • Means GD, Boyd Y, Willis CR, Derry JM. (2001) Transgenic rescue of the tattered phenotype by using a BAC encoding Ebp. Mamm Genome.; 12: 323-5.
  • Metzger D, Chambon P. (2001) Site- and time-specific gene targeting in the mouse. Methods.; 24: 71-80.
  • Montoliu L, Umland T, Schütz G. (1996) A locus control region at -12kb of the tyrosinase gene. EMBO J.; 15: 6026-34.
  • Montoliu L, Chavez S, Vidal M. (2000) Variegation associated with lacZ in transgenic animals: a warning note. Transgenic Res.; 9: 237-9.
  • Nagy A. (2000) Cre recombinase: the universal reagent for genome tailoring. Genesis.; 26: 99-109.
  • Nielsen LB, Kahn D, Duell T, Weier HU, Taylor S, Young SG. (1998) Apolipoprotein B gene expression in a series of human apolipoprotein B transgenic mice generated with recA-assisted restriction endonuclease cleavage-modified bacterial artificial chromosomes. J Biol Chem.; 273: 21800-7.
  • Nilsson E, Lendahl U. (1993) Transient expression of a human β-actin promoter/lacZ gene introduced into mouse embryos correlates with a low degree of methylation. Mol Reprod Dev.; 34: 149-57.
  • Okabe M, Ikawa M, Kominami K, Nakanishi T, Nishimune Y. (1997) Green mice as a source of ubiquitous green cells. FEBS Lett.; 407: 313-9.
  • Opal SM, Gluck T. (2003) Endotoxin as a drug target. Crit Care Med.; 31: S57-64.
  • Osman GE, Jacobson DP, Li SW, Hood LE, Liggitt HD, Ladiges WC. (1997) SWR: an inbred strain suitable for generating transgenic mice. Lab Anim Sci.; 47: 167-71.
  • Overbeek PA, Lai S-P, van Quill KR, Westphal H. (1986) Tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice of a fused gene containing RSV terminal sequences. Science.; 231: 1574-7.
  • Palmiter RD, Chen HY, Brinster RL. (1982) Differential regulation of metallothionein-thymidine kinase fusion genes in transgenic mice and their offspring. Cell.; 29: 701-10.
  • Palmiter RD, Wilkie TM, Chen HY, Brinster RL. (1983) Transmission distortion and mosaicism in an unusual transgenic mouse pedigree. Cell.; 36: 869-77.
  • Palmiter RD, Hammer RE, Brinster RL. (1985) Expression of growth hormone genes in transgenic mice. In Banbury Report. 20. Genetic Manipulation of the Early Embryo. Costantini F, Jaenisch R, eds, pp 123-32.
  • Palmiter RD, Sandgren EP, Avarbock MR, Allen DD, Brinster RD. (1991) Heterologous introns can enhance expression of transgenes in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.; 88: 478-82.
  • Paris D, Toyama PM, Sinet PM, Kamoun P, London J. (1995) A comparison between an inbred strain and hybrid lines to generate transgenic mice.
  • Perez CF, Botchan MR, Tobias CA. (1985) DNA-mediated gene transfer efficiency is enhanced by ionizing and ultraviolet irradiation of rodent cells in vitro. Radiat Res.; 104: 200-13.
  • Petersen S, Casellas R, Reina-San-Martin B, Chen HT, Difilippantonio MJ, Wilson PC, et al. (2001) AID is required to initiate Nbs1/gamma-H2AX focus formation and mutations at sites of class switching. Nature.; 414: 660-5.
  • Peterson KR. (1997) Production and analysis of transgenic mice containing east artificial chromosomes. In Genetic Engineering. Setlow JK, ed, vol. 19: pp 235-55. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Probst FJ, Fridell RA, Raphael Y, Saunders TL, Wang A, Liang Y, et al. (1998) Correction of deafness in shaker-2 mice by an unconventional myosin in a BAC transgene. Science.; 280: 1444-7.
  • Robinson MO, McCarrey JR, Simon MI. (1989) Transcriptional regulatory regions of testis-specific PGK2 defined in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 86: 8437-41.
  • Sands AT, Hansen TN, Demayo FJ, Stanley LA, Xin L, Schwartz RJ. (1993) Cytoplasmic α-actin promoter produces germ cell and preimplantation embryonic transgene expression. Mol Reprod Dev.; 34: 117-26.
  • Schedl A, Beermann F, Thies E, Montoliu L, Kelsey G, Schutz G. (1992) Transgenic mice generated by pronuclear injection of a yeast artificial chromosome. Nucleic Acids Res.; 20: 3073-7.
  • Schedl A, Montoliu L, Kelsey G, Schutz G. (1993a) A yeast artificial chromosome covering the tyrosinase gene confers copy number-dependent expression in transgenic mice. Nature.; 362: 258-61.
  • Schedl A, Larin Z, Montoliu L, Thies E, Kelsey G, Lehrach H, et al. (1993b) A method for the generation of YAC transgenic mice by pronuclear microinjection. Nucleic Acids Res.; 21: 4783-7.
  • Schedl A, Ross A, Lee M, Engelkamp D, Rashbass P, van Heyningen V, Hastie ND. (1996) Influence of PAX6 gene dosage on development: overexpression causes severe eye abnormalities. Cell.; 86: 71-82.
  • Schorpp M, Jager R, Schellander K, Schenkel J, Wagner EF, Weiher H, Angel P. (1996) The human ubiquitin C promoter directs high ubiquitous expression of transgenes in mice. Nucleic Acids Res.; 24: 1787-8.
  • Schwenk F, Baron U, Rajewsky K. (1995) A cre-transgenic mouse strain for the ubiquitous deletion of loxP-flanked gene segments including deletion in germ cells. Nucleic Acids Res.; 23: 5080-1.
  • Shani M. (1986) Tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression of a chimeric actin/globin gene in transgenic mice. Mol Cell Biol.; 6: 2624-31.
  • Smith DJ, Zhu Y, Zhang J, Cheng J-F, Rubin EM. (1995) Construction of a panel of transgenic mice containing a contiguous 2-Mb set of YAC/P1 clones from human chromosome 21q22.2. Genomics.; 27: 425-34.
  • Smith DJ, Stevens ME, Sudanagunta SP, Bronson RT, Makhinson M, Watabe AM, et al. (1997) Functional screening of 2 Mb of human chromosome 21q22.2 in transgenic mice implicates minibrain in learning defects associated with Down syndrome. Nat Genet.; 16: 28-36.
  • Smithies O, Maeda N. (1995) Gene targeting approaches to complex genetic diseases: atherosclerosis and essential hypertension. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 92: 5266-72.
  • Sonoda E, Takata M, Yamashita YM, Morrison C, Takeda S. (2001) Homologous DNA recombination in vertebrate cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 98: 8388-94.
  • Soriano P. (1999) Generalized lacZ expression with the ROSA26 Cre reporter strain. Nat Genet.; 21: 70-1.
  • Stewart TA, Wagner EF, Mintz B. (1982) Human β-globin gene sequences injected into mouse eggs, retained in adult, and transmitted to progeny. Science.; 217: 1046-8.
  • Sun T, Jayatilake D, Afink GB, Ataliotis P, Nister M, Richardson WD, Smith HK. (2000) A human YAC transgene rescues craniofacial and neural tube development in PDGFRα knockout mice and uncovers a role for PDGFRα in prenatal lung growth. Development.; 127: 4519-29.
  • Taketo M, Schroeder AC, Mobraaten LE, Gunning KB, Hanten G, Fox RR, Roderick TH, Stewart CL, Lilly F, Hansen CT. (1991) FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 88: 2065-9.
  • Tanaka S, Yamamoto H, Takeuchi S, Takeuchi T. (1990) Melanization in albino mice transformed by introducing cloned mouse tyrosinase gene. Development.; 108: 223-7.
  • Threadgill DW, Dlugosz AA, Hanson LA, Tennenbaum T, Lichti U, Yee D, et al. (1995) Targeted disruption of mouse EGF receptor: effect of genetic background on mutant phenotype. Science.; 269: 230-4.
  • Townes TM, Lingrel JB, Chen HY, Brinster RL, Palmiter RD. (1985) Erythroid-specific expression of human β-globin genes in transgenic mice. EMBO J.; 4: 1715-23.
  • Wagner EF, Stewart TA, Mintz B. (1981) The human β-globin gene and a functional thymidine kinase gene in developing mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 78: 5016-20
  • Wagner TE, Hoppe PC, Jollick JD, Scholl DR, Hodinka RL, Gault JB. (1981) Microinjection of a rabbit β-globin gene in zygotes and its subsequent expression in adult mice and their offspring. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.; 78: 6376-80.
  • Wagner EF, Covarrubias L, Stewart TA, Mintz B. (1983) Prenatal lethalities in mice homozygous for human growth hormone gene sequences integrated in the germ line. Cell.; 35: 647-55.
  • Wagner SD, Gross G, Cook GP, Davies SL, Neuberger MS. (1996) Antibody expression from the core region of the human IgH locus reconstructed in transgenic mice using bacteriophage P1 clones. Genomics.; 35: 405-14.
  • Wall RJ, Paleyanda RK, Foster JA, Powell A, Rexroad C, Lubon H. (2000) DNA preparation method can influence outcome of transgenic animal experiments. Anim Biotechnol.; 11: 19-32.
  • Ward JM, Anver MR, Mahler JF, Devor- Henneman DE. (2000) Pathology of mice commonly used in genetic engineering (C57BL/6; 129; B6, 129; and FVB/N). In Pathology of Genetically Engineered Mice. Ward JM, Mahler JF, Maronpot RR, Sundberg JP, eds, pp 161-179, Iowa State University Press, Ames.
  • West AG, Gaszner M, Felsenfeld G. (2002) Insulators: many functions, many mechanisms. Genes Dev.; 16: 271-88.
  • Whitelaw CB, Springbett AJ, Webster J, Clark J. (1993) The majority of G0 transgenic mice are derived from mosaic embryos. Transgenic Res,; 2.; 29-32.
  • Wilkie TM, Brinster RL, Palmiter RD. (1986) Germline and somatic mosaicism in transgenic mice. Develop Biol.; 118: 9-18.
  • Wilkie TM, Palmiter RD. (1987) Analysis of the integrant in Myk-103 transgenic mice which failed to transmit the integrant. Mol Cell Biol.; 7: 1646-55.
  • Woychik RP, Stewart TA, Davis LG, D'Eustachio P, Leder P. (1985) An inherited limb deformity created by insertional mutagenesis in a transgenic mouse. Nature.; 318: 36-41.
  • Yang XW, Model P, Heintz N. (1997) Homologous recombination based modification in Escherichia coli and germline transmission in transgenic mice of a bacterial artificial chromosome. Nat Biotechnol.; 15: 859-65.
  • Zhu Y, Jong MC, Frazer KA, Gong E, Krauss RM, Cheng JF, et al. (2000) Genomic interval engineering of mice identifies a novel modulator of triglyceride production. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 97: 1137-42.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.