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Analogs of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A).

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This review summarizes our knowledge of analogs and derivatives of diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A), the most extensively studied member of the dinucleoside 5',5'''-P1,Pn-polyphosphate (NpnN) family. After a short discussion of enzymes that may be responsible for the accumulation and degradation of Np4N's in the cell, this review focuses on chemically and/or enzymatically produced analogs and their practical applications. Particular attention is paid to compounds that have aided the study of enzymes involved in the metabolism of Ap4A (Np4N'). Certain Ap4A analogs were alternative substrates of Ap4A-degrading enzymes and/or acted as enzyme inhibitors, some other helped to establish enzyme mechanisms, increased the sensitivity of certain enzyme assays or produced stable enzyme:ligand complexes for structural analysis.
Physical description
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