Photodynamic effects of two water soluble porphyrins evaluated on human malignant melanoma cells in vitro.
Languages of publication
Two water soluble porphyrins: meso-tetra-4-N-methylpyridyl-porphyrin iodide (P1) and 5,10-di-(4-acetamidophenyl)-15,20-di-(4-N-methylpyridyl) porphyrin (P2) were synthesised and evaluated in respect to their photochemical and photophysical properties as well as biological activity. Cytotoxic and phototoxic effects were evaluated in human malignant melanoma Me45 line using clonogenic assay, cytological study of micronuclei, apoptosis and necrosis frequency and inhibition of growth of megacolonies. Both porphyrins were characterised by high UV and low visible light absorptions. Dark toxicity measured on the basis of the clonogenic assay and inhibition of megacolony growth area indicated that P1 was non-toxic at concentrations up to 50 μg/ml (42.14 μM) and P2 at concentrations up to 20 μg/ml (16.86 μM). The photodynamic effect induced by red light above 630 nm indicated that both porphyrins were able to inhibit growth of melanoma megacolonies at non-toxic concentrations. Cytologic examination showed that the predominant mode of cell death was necrosis.
- Adler AD, Longo FR, Finarelli JD, Goldmacher J. (1967) J Org Chem.; 32: 476.
- Ahmad N, Mukhtar H. (2000) Mechanism of photodynamic therapy-induced cell death. Methods Enzymol.; 319: 342-58.
- Dougherty TJ. (2002) An update on photodynamic therapy applications. J Clin Laser Med Surg.; 20: 3-7.
- Dougherty TJ, Gomer CJ, Henderson BW, Jori G, Kessel D, Korbelik M, Moan J, Peng Q. (1998) Photodynamic therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst.; 90: 889-905.
- Drzewiecka A, Urbanska K, Matuszak Z, Pineiro M, Arnaut LG, Habdas J, Ratuszna A, Stochel G. (2001) Tritolyloporphyrin dimer as a new potent hydrophobic sensitizer for photodynamic therapy of melanoma. Acta Biochim Polon.; 48: 277-82.
- Fenech M, Crott J, Turner J, Brown S. (1999) Necrosis, apoptosis, cytostasis and DNA damage in human lymphocytes measured simultaneously within the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay: Description of method and results for hydrogen peroxide. Mutagenesis.; 14: 605-12.
- Foglieni C, Meoni C, Davalli AM. (2001) Fluorescent dyes for cell viability: an application on prefixed conditions. Histochem Cell Biol.; 115: 223-9.
- Guo M, Chen Ch, Vidair Ch, Marino S, Dewey WC, Ling CC. (1997) Characterization of radiation-induced apoptosis in rodent cell lines. Radiat Res.; 147: 295-303.
- Jajte J, Grzegorczyk J, Zmyslony M, Rajkowska E. (2002) Effect of 7 mT static magnetic field and iron ions on rat lymphocytes: apoptosis, necrosis and free radical processes. Bioelectrochemistry.; 57: 107-11.
- Kumala S, Niemiec P, Widel M, Hancock R, Rzeszowska-Wolny J. (2003) Apoptosis and clonogenic cell survival in three tumour cell lines exposed to gamma rays or chemical genotoxic agents. Cell Mol Biol Lett.; 8: 655-65.
- Kummermehr J, Müller S, Eder P. (1996) The radiation response of murine squamous carcinoma cells treated as megacolonies in vitro. Radiation Research Society 44th Annual Meeting, Chicago, U S A, pp 15-277
- Kwaśny M, Graczyk A. (1990) Hematoporphyrins as photosensitisers in photodynamic diagnosis and therapy of tumours. Wiadomosci chemiczne.; 44: 148 (in Polish).
- Lavie G, Kaplinsky C, Toren A. (1999) A photodynamic pathway to apoptosis and necrosis induced by dimethyltetrahydroxyhelianthrone and hypericin in leukaemic cells: possible relevance to photodynamic therapy. Br J Cancer.; 79: 423-32.
- Lindsey JS, Brown PA, Siesel DA. (1989) Visible light - harvesting in covalently-linked porphyrin-cyanine dyes. Tetrahedron.; 15: 4845-66.
- Lottner C, Bart K-C, Bernhardt G, Brunner H. (2002) Hematoporphyrin-derived soluble porphyrin-platinum conjugates with combined cytotoxic and phototoxic antitumor activity. J Med Chem.; 45: 2064-78.
- Nseyo UO, Detlaven J, Dougherty TJ, Potter WR, Merrill DL, Lundahl SL, Lamm DL. (1998) Photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of patients with resistant superficial bladder cancer: a long-term experience. J Clin Laser Med Surg.; 16: 61-8.
- Oleinick NC, Evans HH. (1998) The photobiology of photodynamic therapy: Cellular targets and mechanisms. Radiat Res.; 150: S146-S156.
- Przybyszewski WM, Widel M, Palyvoda O. (2002) Lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and cellular morphology of R1 rhabdomyosarcoma cell line irradiated in vitro by gamma-rays with different dose-rates. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen.; 22: 93-102.
- Sersuro S, Shoko Y. (1977) Meso-tetrapyridylporphins and their metal complexes. Syntheses and physico-chemical properties. Chem Pharm Bull.; 25: 884-9.
- Tarnawski R, Kummermehr J, Trott KR. (1998) The radiosensitivity of recurrent clones of an irradiated murine squamous cell carcinoma in the in vitro megacolony system. Radiother Oncol.; 46: 209-14.
- Tarnawski R, Widel M, Skladowski K. (2003) Tumor cell repopulation during conventional and accelerated radiotherapy in the in vitro megacolony culture. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys.; 55: 1074-81.
- Varriale L, Coppola E, Veneziani BM, Palumbo G. (2002) Molecular aspects of photodynamic therapy: low energy pre-sensitization of hypericin-loaded human endometrial carcinoma cells enhances phototolerance, alters gene expression and affects the cell cycle. FEBS Lett.; 512: 287-90.
- Wesley MS, Allen CM, Van Lier JE. (2000) Role of activated oxygen species in photodynamic therapy. Methods Enzymol.; 319: 342-58.
- West CML, Moore JV. (1988) Cell survival characteristics of human colon adenocarcinoma cell line after photodynamic treatment: a comparison of Photofrin II and TPPS. Int J Radiat Biol.; 54: 621-34.
- Wilson BD, Mang TS, Stoll H, Jones C, Cooper M, Dougherty TJ. (1992) Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol.; 128: 1597-601.
- Yow CMN, Chen JY, Mak NK, Cheung NH, Leung AWN. (2000) Cellular uptake, subcellular localization and photodamaging effect of Temoporfin (mTHPC) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells: comparison with hematoporphyrin derivative. Cancer Lett.; 157: 123-31.
Publication order reference