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2003 | 50 | 4 | 1019-1038
Article title

The roles of annexins and alkaline phosphatase in mineralization process.

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Abstracts
EN
In this review the roles of specific proteins during the first step of mineralization and nucleation are discussed. Mineralization is initiated inside the extracellular organelles-matrix vesicles (MVs). MVs, containing relatively high concentrations of Ca2+ and inorganic phosphate (Pgi), create an optimal environment to induce the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA). Special attention is given to two families of proteins present in MVs, annexins (AnxAs) and tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatases (TNAPs). Both families participate in the formation of HA crystals. AnxAs are Ca2+- and lipid-binding proteins, which are involved in Ca2+ homeostasis in bone cells and in extracellular MVs. AnxAs form calcium ion channels within the membrane of MVs. Although the mechanisms of ion channel formation by AnxAs are not well understood, evidence is provided that acidic pH or GTP contribute to this process. Furthermore, low molecular mass ligands, as vitamin A derivatives, can modulate the activity of MVs by interacting with AnxAs and affecting their expression. AnxAs and other anionic proteins are also involved in the crystal nucleation. The second family of proteins, TNAPs, is associated with Pi homeostasis, and can hydrolyse a variety of phosphate compounds. ATP is released in the extracellular matrix, where it can be hydrolyzed by TNAPs, ATP hydrolases and nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) pyrophosphohydrolases. However, TNAP is probably not responsible for ATP-dependent Ca2+/phosphate complex formation. It can hydrolyse pyrophosphate (PPi), a known inhibitor of HA formation and a byproduct of NTP pyrophosphohydrolases. In this respect, antagonistic activities of TNAPs and NTP pyrophosphohydrolases can regulate the mineralization process.
Year
Volume
50
Issue
4
Pages
1019-1038
Physical description
Dates
published
2003
received
2003-08-05
revised
2003-09-24
accepted
2003-10-7
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