PL EN


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2003 | 50 | 3 | 743-752
Article title

Azurocidin - inactive serine proteinase homolog acting as a multifunctional inflammatory mediator.

Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
Azurocidin, also known as cationic antimicrobial protein 37 kDa (CAP37) or heparin-binding protein (HBP) is an inactive homolog of serine proteinases residing in granulocytes. The ability to cleave peptide bond was lost due to replacement of two of the three residues from the conserved catalytic triad characteristic for serine proteinases. Azurocidin has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, mainly against Gram-negative bacteria. It is also recognized as a multifunctional inflammatory mediator for its contracting effects on endothelial cells causing an increase of vascular permeability, capacity to bind endotoxin and ability to attract monocytes to inflammation sites.
Publisher

Year
Volume
50
Issue
3
Pages
743-752
Physical description
Dates
published
2003
received
2003-05-30
revised
2003-07-23
accepted
2003-08-06
Contributors
  • Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wrocław University, Wrocław, Poland
References
  • Almeida RP, Melchior M, Campanelli D, Nathan C, Gabay JE. (1991) Complementary DNA sequence of human neutrophil azurocidin, an antibiotic with extensive homology to serine proteases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.; 177: 688-95.
  • Blow DM, Birktoft JJ, Hartley BS. (1969) Role of a buried acid group in the mechanism of action of chymotrypsin Nature.; 221: 337-40.
  • Campanelli D, Detmers PA, Nathan CF, Gabay JE. (1990) Azurocidin and a homologous serine protease from neutrophils. Differential antimicrobial and proteolytic properties. J Clin Invest.; 85: 904-15.
  • Caughey GH. (1994) Serine proteinases of mast cell and leukocyte granules. A league of their own. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.; 150: S138-42.
  • Caughey GH, Schaumberg TH, Zerweck EH, Butterfield JH, Hanson RD, Silverman GA, Ley TJ. (1993) The human mast cell chymase gene (CMA1) mapping to the cathepsin G/granzyme gene cluster and lineage expression. Genomics.; 15: 614-20.
  • Chertov O, Michiel DF, Xu L, Wang JM, Tani K, Murphy WJ, Longo DL, Taub DD, Oppenheim JJ. (1996) Identification of defensin-1, defensin-2 and CAP37/azurocidin as T-cell chemoattractant proteins released from interleukin-8 stimulated neutrophils. J Biol Chem.; 271: 2935-40.
  • Chertov O, Ueda H, Xu LL, Tani K, Murphy WJ, Wang JM, Howard OMZ, Sayers TJ, Oppenheim JJ. (1997) Identification of human neutrophil-derived cathepsin G and azurocidin/CAP37 as chemoattractants for mononuclear cells and neutrophils. J Exp Med.; 186: 739-47.
  • Dimopoulos G, Richman A, Müller H-M, Kafatos FC. (1997) Molecular immune response of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae to bacteria and malaria parasites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 94: 11508-13.
  • Flodgaard H, Ostergaard E, Bayne S, Svendsen A, Thomsen J, Engels M, Wollmer A. (1991) Covalent structure of two novel neutrophile leucocyte-derived proteins of porcine and human origin. Neutrophile elastase homologues with strong monocyte and fibroblast chemotactic activities. Eur J Biochem.; 197: 535-47.
  • Gabay JE, Scott RW, Campanelli D, Griffith J, Wilde C, Marra MW, Seeger M, Nathan CF. (1989) Antibiotic proteins of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 86: 5610-14.
  • Garwicz D, Lindmark A, Persson A-M, Gullberg U. (1998) On the role of the proform-conformation for processing and intracellular sorting of human cathepsin G. Blood.; 92: 1415-22.
  • Gautam N, Olafsson AM, Herwald H, Iversen LF, Lundgren-Åkerlund E, Hedquist P, Arfors K-E, Flodgaard H, Lindbom L. (2001) Heparin-binding protein (HBP/CAP37): a missing link in neutrophil-evoked alteration of vascular permeability. Nat Med.; 7: 1123-7.
  • Guex N, Peitsch MC. (1997) SWISS-MODEL and the Swiss-PDBViewer: an environment for comparative protein modeling. Electrophoresis.; 18: 2714-23.
  • Gullberg U, Lindmark A, Nilsson E, Persson A-M, Olsson I. (1994) Processing of human cathepsin G after transfection to the rat basophil/mast cell tumor line RBL. J Biol Chem.; 269: 25219-25.
  • Gullberg U, Lindmark A, Lindgren G, Persson A-M, Nilsson E, Olsson I. (1995) Carboxyl-terminal prodomain-deleted human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G are efficiently targeted to granules and enzymatically activated in the rat basophilic/mast cell tumor line RBL. J Biol Chem.; 270: 12912-18.
  • Gullberg U, Bengtsson N, Bülow, Garwicz D, Lindmark A, Olsson I. (1999) Processing and targeting of granule proteins in human neutrophils. J Immunol Methods.; 232: 201-10.
  • Heinzelmann M, Mercer-Jones MA, Flodgaard H, Miller FN. (1998a) Heparin-binding protein (CAP37) is internalized in monocytes and increases LPS-induced monocyte activation. J Immunol.; 160: 5530-6.
  • Heinzelmann M, Platz A, Flodgaard H, Miller FN. (1998b) Heparin binding protein (CAP37) is an opsonin for Staphylococcus aureus and increases phagocytosis in monocytes. Inflammation.; 22: 493-505.
  • Heinzelmann M, Polk HC Jr, Miller FN. (1998c) Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte activation by heparin-binding protein and fucoidan. Infect Immun.; 66: 5842-7.
  • Heinzelmann M, Platz A, Flodgaard H, Polk Jr HC, Miller FN. (1999) Endocytosis of heparin-binding protein (CAP37) is essential for the enhancement of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α production in human monocytes. J Immunol.; 162: 4240-5.
  • Hojrup P, Jensen MS, Petersen TE. (1985) Amino acid sequence of bovine protein Z: a vitamin K-dependent serine protease homolog. FEBS Lett.; 184: 333-8.
  • Iversen LF, Kastrup JS, Bjorn SE, Rasmussen PB, Wiberg FL, Flodgaard HJ, Larsen IK. (1997) Structure of HBP, a multifunctional protein with a serine proteinase fold. Nat Struct Biol.; 4: 265-8.
  • Iversen LF, Kastrup JS, Bjorn SE, Wiberg FC, Larsen IK, Flodgaard HJ, Rasmussen PB. (1999) Structure and function of the N-linked glycans of HBP/CAP37/azurocidin: crystal structure determination and biological characterization of nonglycosylated HBP. Protein Sci.; 8: 2019-26.
  • Jenne DE. (1994) Structure of the azurocidin, proteinase 3 and neutrophil elastase genes. Implications for inflammation and vasculitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.; 150: S147-54.
  • Karlsen S, Iversen LF, Larsen IK, Flodgaard HJ, Kastrup JS. (1998) Atomic resolution structure of human HBP/CAP37/azurocidin. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr.; 54: 598-609.
  • Kastrup J, Linde V, Pedersen AK, Stoffer B, Iversen LF, Larsen IK, Rasmussen PB, Flodgaard HJ, Bjorn SE. (2001) Two mutants of human heparin binding protein (CAP37): towards the understanding of the nature of lipid A/LPS and BPTI binding. Proteins.; 42: 442-51.
  • Kawabata S, Tokunaga F, Kugi Y, Motoyama S, Miura Y, Hirata M, Iwanaga S. (1996) Limulus factor D, a 43-kDa protein isolated from horseshoe crab hemocytes is a serine protease homologue with antimicrobial activity. FEBS Lett.; 398: 146-50.
  • Kurosky A, Barnett DR, Lee TH, Touchstone B, Hay RE, Arnott MS, Bowman BH, Fitch WM. (1980) Covalent structure of human haptoglobin: a serine protease homolog. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 77: 3388-92.
  • Lee TD, Gonzalez ML, Kumar P, Chary-Reddy S, Grammas P, Pereira HA. (2002) CAP37, a novel inflammatory mediator. Its expression in endothelial cells and localization to atherosclerotic lesions. Am J Pathol.; 160: 841-8.
  • Linde V, Bjorn S, Kastrup JS, Flodgaard H. (2000) Lipopolysaccharide affinity measurement by scintillation proximity assay: application to human heparin binding protein. BioTechniques.; 28: 218-22.
  • Lindmark A, Garwicz D, Rasmussen PB, Flodgaard H, Gullberg U. (1999) Characterization of the biosynthesis, processing and sorting of human HBP/CAP37/azurocidin. J Leukoc Biol.; 66: 634-43.
  • Mayet W-J, Csernok E, Szymkowiak C, Gross WL, Meyer zum Büschenfelde K-H. (1993) Human endothelial cells express proteinase 3, the target antigen of anticytoplasmic antibodies in Wegener's granulomatosis. Blood.; 82: 1221-9.
  • McCabe D, Cukierman T, Gabay JE. (2002) Basic residues in azurocidin/HBP contribute to both heparin binding and antimicrobial activity. J Biol Chem.; 277: 27477-88.
  • McGeer PL, McGeer EG. (1995) The inflammatory response system of brain: implications for therapy of Alzheimer and other neurodegenerative diseases. Brain Res Rev.; 21: 195-218.
  • McGuire MJ, Lipsky PE, Thiele DL. (1993) Generation of active myeloid and lymphoid granule serine proteases requires processing by the granule thiol protease dipeptydyl peptidase I. J Biol Chem.; 268: 2458-67.
  • Morgan JG, Sukiennicki T, Pereira HA, Spitznagel JK, Guerra ME, Larrick JW. (1991) Cloning of the cDNA for the serine protease homolog CAP37/azurocidin, a microbicidal and chemotactic protein from human granulocytes. J Immunol.; 147: 3210-14.
  • Muragasu-Oei B, Rodrigues V, Yang X, Chia W. (1995) Masquerade: a novel secreted serine protease-like molecule is required for somatic muscle attachment in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev.; 9: 139-54.
  • Nakamura T, Nishizawa T, Hagiya M, Seki T, Shimonishi M, Sugimura A, Tashiro K, Shimizu S. (1989) Molecular cloning and expression of human hepatocyte growth factor. Nature.; 342: 440-3.
  • Neurath H. (1986) The versatility of proteolytic enzymes. J Cell Biochem.; 32: 35-49.
  • Olczak M, Wątorek W. (2002) Structural analysis of N-glycans from human neutrophil azurocidin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.; 293: 213-9.
  • Olofsson AM, Vestberg M, Hervald H, Rygaard J, David G, Arfors K-E, Linde V, Flodgaard H, Dedio J, Müller-Esterl W, Lundgren-Åkerlund E. (1999) Heparin-binding protein targeted to mitochondrial compartments protects endothelial cells from apoptosis. J Clin Invest.; 104: 885-94.
  • Østergaard E, Flodgaard H. (1992) A neutrophil-derived proteolytic inactive elastase homologue (hHBP) mediates reversible contraction of fibroblasts and endothelial cell monolayers and stimulates monocyte survival and thrombospondin secretion. J Leukoc Biol.; 51: 316-23.
  • Pereira HA, Shafer WM, Pohl J, Martin LE, Spitznagel JK. (1990a) CAP37, a human neutrophil-derived chemotactic factor with monocyte specific activity. J Clin Invest.; 85: 1468-76.
  • Pereira HA, Spitznagel JK, Pohl J, Wilson DE, Morgan J, Pallings I, Larrick JW. (1990b) CAP37, a 37 kD human neutrophil granule cationic protein shares homology with inflammatory proteinases. Life Sci.; 46: 189-96.
  • Pereira HA, Erdem I, Pohl J, Spitznagel JK. (1993) Synthetic bactericidal peptide based on CAP37 a 37 kDa human neutrophil granule-associated cationic antimicrobial protein chemotactic for monocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 90: 4733-7.
  • Pereira HA, Moore P, Grammas P. (1996a) CAP37, a neutrophil granule-derived protein stimulates protein kinase C activity in endothelial cells. J Leukoc Biol.; 60: 415-22.
  • Pereira HA, Kumar P, Grammas P. (1996b) Expression of CAP37, a novel inflammatory mediator in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging.; 17: 753-9.
  • Pereira HA, Ruan X, Kumar P. (2003) Activation of microglia: a neuroinflammatory role for CAP37. Glia.; 41: 64-72.
  • Peters DC, Noble S. (1999) Aprotinin: an update of its pharmacology and therapeutic use in open heart surgery and coronary artery bypass surgery. Drugs.; 57: 233-60.
  • Petersen LC, Birktoft JJ, Flodgaard H. (1993) Binding of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor to heparin binding protein/CAP37/azurocidin. Interaction between a Kunitz-type inhibitor and a proteolytically inactive serine proteinase homologue. Eur J Biochem.; 214: 271-9.
  • Pohl J., Pereira HA, Martin NM, Spitznagel JK. (1990) Amino acid sequence of CAP37, a human neutrophil granule-derived antibacterial and monocyte-specific chemotactic glycoprotein structurally similar to neutrophil elastase. FEBS Lett.; 272: 200-4.
  • Rao NV, Rao GV, Marshall BC, Hoidal JR. (1996) Biosynthesis and processing of proteinase 3 in U937 cells. Processing pathways are distinct from those of cathepsin G. J Biol Chem.; 271: 2972-8.
  • Rasmussen PB, Bjorn S, Hastrup S, Nielsen PF, Norris K, Thim L, Wiberg FC, Flodgaard H. (1996) Characterization of recombinant human HBP/CAP37/azurocidin, a pleiotropic mediator of inflammation-enhancing LPS-induced cytokine release from monocytes. FEBS Lett.; 390: 109-12.
  • Ruan X, Chodosh J, Callegan MC, Booth MC, Lee TD, Kumar P, Gilmore MS, Pereira HA. (2002) Corneal expression of the inflammatory mediator CAP37. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.; 43: 1414-21.
  • Salvesen G, Enghild JJ. (1990) An unusual specificity in the activation of neutrophil serine proteinase zymogens. Biochemistry.; 29: 5304-8.
  • Shafer WM, Martin LE, Spitznagel JK. (1984) Cationic antimicrobial proteins isolated from human neutrophil granulocytes in the presence of diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Infect Immun.; 45: 29-35.
  • Shafer WM, Martin LE, Spitznagel JK. (1986) Late intraphagosomal hydrogen ion concentration favors the in vitro antimicrobial capacity of a 37-kilodalton cationic granule protein of human neutrophil granulocytes. Infect Immun.; 53: 651-5.
  • Spitznagel JK. (1990) Antibiotic proteins of human neutrophils. J Clin Invest.; 86: 1381-6.
  • Tapper H, Karlsson A, Mörgelin M, Flodgaard H, Herwald H. (2002) Secretion of heparin-binding protein from human neutrophils is determined by its localization in azurophilic granules and secretory vesicles. Blood.; 99: 1785-93.
  • Wątorek W, Polanowski A, Wilusz T. (1996) The use of sequential affinity chromatography for separation of human neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and azurocidin. Acta Biochim Polon.; 43: 503-6.
  • Wedmore CV, Williams TJ. (1981) Control of vascular permeability by polymorphonuclear leukocyte in inflammation. Nature.; 289: 646-50.
  • Wilde CG, Snable JL, Griffith JE, Scott RW. (1990) Characterization of two azurophil granule proteases with active-site homology to neutrophil elastase. J Biol Chem.; 265: 2038-41.
  • Witko-Sarsat V, Cramer EM, Hieblot C, Guichard J, Nusbaum P, Lopez S, Lesavre P, Halbwachs-Mecarelli L. (1999) Presence of proteinase 3 in secretory vesicles: evidence of a novel, highly mobilizable intracellular pool distinct from azurophilic granules. Blood.; 94: 2487-96.
  • Zimmer M, Medcalf RL, Fink TM, Mattmann C, Lichter P, Jenne DE. (1992) Three human elastase-like genes coordinately expressed in the myelomonocyte lineage are organized as a single genetic locus on 19pter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.; 89: 8215-9.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.bwnjournal-article-abpv50i3p743kz
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.