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2003 | 50 | 2 | 319-336
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Lipid peroxidation and cell cycle signaling : 4-hydroxynonenal, a key molecule in stress mediated signaling.

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Role of lipid peroxidation products, particularly 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in cell cycle signaling is becoming increasingly clear. In this article, recent studies suggesting an important role of 4-HNE in stress mediated signaling for apoptosis are critically evaluated. Evidence demonstrating the modulation of UV, oxidative stress, and chemical stress mediated apoptosis by blocking lipid peroxidation by the α-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is presented which suggest an important role of these enzymes in protection against oxidative stress and a role of lipid peroxidation products in stress mediated signaling. Overexpression of 4-HNE metabolizing GSTs (mGSTA4-4, hGSTA4-4, or hGST5.8) protects cells against 4-HNE, oxidative stress (H2O2 or xanthine/xanthine oxidase), and UV-A mediated apoptosis by blocking JNK and caspase activation suggesting a role of 4-HNE in the mechanisms of apoptosis caused by these stress factors. The intracellular concentration of 4-HNE appears to be crucial for the nature of cell cycle signaling and may be a determinant for the signaling for differentiation, proliferation, transformation, or apoptosis. The intracellular concentrations of 4-HNE are regulated through a coordinated action of GSTs (GSTA4-4 and hGST5.8) which conjugate 4-HNE to GSH to form the conjugate (GS-HNE) and the transporter 76 kDa Ral-binding GTPase activating protein (RLIP76), which catalyze ATP-dependent transport of GS-HNE. A mild stress caused by heat, UV-A, or H2O2 with no apparent effect on the cells in culture causes a rapid, transient induction of hGST5.8 and RLIP76. These stress preconditioned cells acquire ability to metabolize and exclude 4-HNE at an accelerated pace and acquire relative resistance to apoptosis by UV and oxidative stress as compared to unconditioned control cells. This resistance of stress preconditioned cells can be abrogated by coating the cells with anti-RLIP76 antibodies which block the transport of GS-HNE. These studies and previous reports discussed in this article strongly suggest a key role of 4-HNE in stress mediated signaling.
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  • Department of Human Biological Chemistry and Genetics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77550, USA
  • Department of Human Biological Chemistry and Genetics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77550, USA
  • Department of Human Biological Chemistry and Genetics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77550, USA
  • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, U.S.A.
  • Department of Human Biological Chemistry and Genetics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77550, USA
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