Species- and substrate-specific stimulation of human plasma paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity by high chloride concentration.
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Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), contained in plasma high-density lipoproteins, plays an important role in the protection of plasma lipoproteins and cell membranes from oxidative damage. Previous studies indicate that human PON1 is stimulated by high NaCl concentrations. The aim of this study was to characterize in more detail the effect of salts on serum PON1. Paraoxon-hydrolyzing activity of human serum was stimulated by 81.6% following the addition of 1 M NaCl. The effect of NaCl was dose-dependent between 0.5 and 2 M. PON1 activity toward phenyl acetate was reduced by 1 M NaCl by 55.2%. Both the paraoxon- and phenyl acetate-hydrolysing activity was slightly lower in heparinized plasma than in serum, but NaCl had similar stimulatory and inhibitory effects on these activities, respectively. In rat, rabbit, and mouse, NaCl reduced PON1 activity. KCl had a similar effect on human PON1 as NaCl. Sodium nitrite also stimulated human PON1 but much less effectively than chloride salts. In contrast, sucrose, sodium acetate and sodium lactate had no significant effect. NaBr was a less effective PON1 activator than NaCl, whereas the effect of NaJ was non-significant. The activity of human PON1 toward homogentisic acid lactone and γ-decanolactone was unaltered by NaCl. These data indicate that: 1) high concentrations of chlorides stimulate human PON1 activity toward paraoxon but not other substrates, 2) PON1 is inhibited by Cl- in other mammalian species, 3) the potency of human PON1 activation by halogene salts increases with decreasing atomic mass of the halide anion.
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