Comparative in vitro studies on liposomal formulations of amphotericin B and its derivative, N-methyl-N-D-fructosyl amphotericin B methyl ester (MFAME).
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N-Methyl-N-D-fructosyl amphotericin B methyl ester (MFAME) is a semisynthetic derivative of the antifungal antibiotic amphotericin B (AMB). In contrast to the parent antibiotic, the derivative is characterised by low toxicity to mammalian cells and good solubility in water of its salts. Comparative studies on biological properties of free MFAME, AMB and their liposomal formulations were performed. To obtain liposomal forms, the antibiotics were incorporated into small unilamellar vesicles composed of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and DMPC:cholesterol or ergosterol, 8:2 molar ratio. The effectivity of the liposomal and free forms of AMB and MFAME were compared by determination of fungistatic and fungicidal activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10261, potassium release from erythrocytes, and haemolysis. The results obtained indicate that in contrast to AMB, incorporation of MFAME into liposomes did not further improve its selective toxicity. Studies on the antagonistic effect of ergosterol and cholesterol on the antifungal activity of the antibiotics indicated that sterol interference was definitely less pronounced in the case of MFAME than in the case of AMB.
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