Changes in the cellular behaviour of human colonic cell line Caco-2 in response to butyrate treatment.
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Gut-derived adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells were treated with sodium butyrate (NaB) at physiologically relevant concentrations. We characterized its effects on proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, adhesion to the solid support and interleukin-8 secretion. Differentiation was determined by brush border alkaline phosphatase activity. Apoptosis was assessed by acridine orange and Hoechst stains. Differentiation and apoptosis were analyzed in both adherent and floating cell populations. The transformed Caco-2 cells did not retain their malignant phenotype in the presence of NaB. They appeared to undergo a change in the phenotype induced by NaB, as indicated by reduced proliferation, enhanced differentiation, stimulation of apoptosis leading to decreased viability of cells, and stimulation of interleukin-8 secretion. Considering all the above facts and data, we postulate that Caco-2 cells cultured in NaB supplemented medium could regain the phenotypic characteristics of the phenotype of the parent cell from which originated the Caco-2 line.
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