Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2001 | 48 | 2 | 351-358
Article title

MADS-box genes are involved in floral development and evolution.

Title variants
Languages of publication
MADS-box genes encode transcription factors in all eukaryotic organisms thus far studied. Plant MADS-box proteins contain a DNA-binding (M), an intervening (I), a Keratin-like (K) and a C-terminal C-domain, thus plant MADS-box proteins are of the MIKC type. In higher plants most of the well-characterized genes are involved in floral development. They control the transition from vegetative to generative growth and determine inflorescence meristem identity. They specify floral organ identity as outlined in the ABC model of floral development. Moreover, in Antirrhinum majus the MADS-box gene products DEF/GLO and PLE control cell proliferation in the developing flower bud. In this species the DEF/GLO and the SQUA proteins form a ternary complex which determines the overall "Bauplan" of the flower. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MADS-box sequences obtained from ferns, gymnosperms and higher eudicots reveal that, although ferns possess already MIKC type genes, these are not orthologous to the well characterized MADS-box genes from gymnosperms or angiosperms. Putative orthologs of floral homeotic B- and C-function genes have been identified in different gymnosperms suggesting that these genes evolved some 300-400 million years ago. Both gymnosperms and angiosperms also contain a hitherto unknown sister clade of the B-genes, which we termed Bsister. A novel hypothesis will be described suggesting that B and Bsister might be involved in sex determination of male and female reproductive organs, respectively.
Physical description
  • Bradley, D., Carpenter, R., Sommer, H., Hartley, N. & Coen, E. (1993) Complementary homeotic phenotypes result from opposite orientations of a transposon at the plena locus of Antirrhinum. Cell 72, 85-95.
  • Chen, L., Chen, J.-C., Calstle, L. & Sung, Z.R. (1997) EMF genes regulate Arabidopsis inflorescence development. Plant Cell 9, 2011-2024.
  • Davies, B., Motte, P., Keck, E., Saedler, H., Sommer, H. & Schwarz-Sommer, Z. (1999) PLENA and FARINELLI: Reduncancy and regulatory interactions between two Antirrhinum MADS-box factors controlling flower development. EMBO J. 18, 4023-4034.
  • Egea-Cortines, M., Saedler, H. & Sommer, H. (1999) Ternary complex formation between the MADS-box proteins SQUAMOSA, DEFICIENS and GLOBOSA is involved in the control of floral architecture in Antirrhinum majus. EMBO J. 18, 5370-5379.
  • Hartmann, U., Höhmann, S., Nettesheim, K., Wisman, E., Seadler, H. & Huijser, P. (2000) Molecular cloning of SVP: A negative regulator of the floral transition in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 21, 351-360.
  • Huijser, P., Klein, J., Lönnig, W.E., Meijer, H., Saedler, H. & Sommer, H. (1992) Bracteomania, an inflorescence anomaly, is caused by the loss of function of the MADS-box gene squamosa in Antirrhinum majus. EMBO J. 11, 1239-1249.
  • Mandel, M.A., Gustafson-Brown, C., Savige, B. & Yanofsky, M.F. (1992) Molecular characterization of the Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene APETALA 1. Nature 360, 273-277.
  • Michaels, S.D. & Amasino, R.M. (1999) FLOWERING LOCUS C encodes a novel MADS domain protein that acts as a repressor of flowering. Plant Cell 11, 949-956.
  • Motte, P., Saedler, H. & Schwarz-Sommer, Z. (1998) Stylosa and Fistulata: Regulatory components of the homeotic control of Antirhhinum floral organogenesis. Development 125, 71-84.
  • Schwarz-Sommer, Z., Huijser, P., Nacken, W., Saedler, H. & Sommer, H. (1990) Genetic control of flower development by homeotic genes in Antirrhinum majus. Science 250, 931-936.
  • Schwarz-Sommer, Z., Hue, I., Huijser, P., Flor, P.J., Hansen, R., Tetens, F., Lönnig, W.-E., Saedler, H. & Sommer, H. (1992) Characterization of the Antirrhinum floral homeotic MADS-box gene deficiens: Evidence for DNA binding and autoregulation of its persistent expression throughout flower development. EMBO J. 11, 251-263.
  • Sheldon, C.C., Burn, J.E., Perez, P.P., Metzger, J., Edwards, J.A., Peaock, W.J. & Dennis, E.S. (1999) The FLF MADS box gene: A repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis regulated by vernalization and methylation. Plant Cell 11, 445-458.
  • Sommer, H., Beltran, J.-P., Huijser, P., Pape, H., Lönnig, W.-E., Saedler, H. & Schwarz- Sommer, Z. (1990) Deficiens, a homeotic gene involved in the control of flower morphogenesis in Antirrhinum majus: The protein shows homology to transcription factors; EMBO J. 9(3), 605-613.
  • Sung, Z.R., Belachew, A., Shunong, B. & Bertrand- Garcia, R. (1992) EMF, an Arabidopsis gene required for vegetative shoot development. Science 258, 1645-1647.
  • Theißen, G., Becker, A., Di Rosa, A., Kanno, A., Kim, J.T., Münster, T., Winter, K.-U. & Saedler, H. (2000) A short history of MADS-box genes in plants. Plant Mol. Biol. 42, 115-149.
  • Tröbner, W., Ramirez, L., Motte, P., Hue, I., Huijser, P., Lönnig, W.E., Saedler, H., Sommer, H. & Schwarz-Sommer, Zs. (1992) Globosa: A homeotic gene which interacts with Deficiens in the control of Antirrhinum floral organogenesis. EMBO J. 11, 4693- 4704.
  • Wilkinson, M., de Andrade Silva, E., Zachgo, S. Saedler, H. & Schwarz-Sommer, Z. (2000) CHORIPETALA and DESPENTEADO: General regulators during plants development and potential targets of FIMBRIATA-mediated degradation. Development 127, 3725-3734.
  • Winter, K.U., Becker, A., Münster, T., Kim, T., Saedler, H. & Theißen, G. (1999) MADS-box genes reveal that gnethophytes are more closely related to conifers than to flowering plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 7342-7347.
  • Zachgo, S., de Andrade Silva, E., Motte, P., Tröbner, W., Saedler, H. & Schwarz-Sommer, Zs. (1995) Functional analysis of the Antirrhinum floral homeotic DEFICINES gene in vivo and in vitro by using a temperature-sensitive mutant. Development 121, 2861-2875.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.