Peroxidation of proteins and lipids in suspensions of liposomes, in blood serum, and in mouse myeloma cells.
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There is growing evidence that proteins are early targets of reactive oxygen species, and that the altered proteins can in turn damage other biomolecules. In this study, we measured the effects of proteins on the oxidation of liposome phospholipid membranes, and the formation of protein hydroperoxides in serum and in cultured cells exposed to radiation-generated hydroxyl free radicals. Lysozyme, which did not affect liposome stability, gave 50% protection when present at 0.3 mg/ml, and virtually completely prevented lipid oxidation at 10 mg/ml. When human blood serum was irradiated, lipids were oxidized only after the destruction of ascorbate. In contrast, peroxidation of proteins proceeded immediately. Protein hydroperoxides were also generated without a lag period in hybrid mouse myeloma cells, while at the same time no lipid peroxides formed. These results are consistent with the theory that, under physiological conditions, lipid membranes are likely to be effectively protected from randomly-generated hydroxyl radicals by proteins, and that protein peroxyl radicals and hydroperoxides may constitute an important hazard to biological systems under oxidative stress.
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