Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2000 | 47 | 4 | 1189-1195
Article title

Plant ureases: Roles and regulation.

Title variants
Languages of publication
Both urea and urease were subjects of early scientific investigations. Urea was the first organic molecule to be synthesized and jack bean urease was the first enzyme ever to be crystallized. About 50 years later it was shown to be the first nickel metalloenzyme. Since then, nickel-dependent ureases have been isolated from many bacteria, fungi and higher plants. They have similar structures and mechanisms of catalysis. A urease apoenzyme needs to be activated. This process requires participation of several accessory proteins that incorporate nickel into the urease forming catalytic site. In this review, ureases from various organisms are briefly described and the similarities of their structures discussed. Moreover, the significance of urea recycling in plants is explained and recent literature data about the function and activation of plant ureases are presented.
Physical description
  • Brodzik, R., Koprowski, H., Yusibov, V. & Sirko, A. (2000) Production of urease from Helicobacter pylori in transgenic tobacco plants. Cell Mol. Biol. Lett. 5, 357-366.
  • Eaton, K.A., Brooks, C.L., Morgan, D.R. & Krakowka, S. (1991) Essential role of urease in pathogenesis of gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori in gnotobiotic piglets. Infect. Immun. 59, 2470-2475.
  • Freyermuth, S.K., Forde, B.G. & Polacco, J.C. (1999) Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis urease accessory protein (accession no. AF109374) (PGR99-012). Plant Physiol. 119, 364-366.
  • Freyermuth, S.K., Bacanamwo, M. & Polacco, J.C. (2000) The soybean Eu3 gene encodes an Ni-binding protein necessary for urease activity. Plant J. 21, 53-60.
  • Gallardo, F., Fu, J., Canton, F.R., Garcia-Gutierrez, A., Canovas, F.M. & Kirby, E.G. (1999) Expression of a conifer glutamine synthetase gene in transgenic poplar. Planta 210, 19-26.
  • Gerendas, J., Zhu, Z. & Sattelmacher, B. (1998) Influence of N and Ni supply on nitrogen metabolism and urease activity in rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. Exp. Bot. 49, 1545-1554.
  • Hirai, M., Kawai-Hirai, R., Hirai, T. & Ueki, T. (1993) Structural change of jack bean urease induced by addition of surfactants studied with synchrotron-radiation small-angle X-ray scattering. Eur. J. Biochem. 215, 55-61.
  • Hirayama, C., Sugimura, M., Saito, H. & Nakamura, M. (2000) Purification and properties of urease from the leaf of mulberry, Morus alba. Phytochemistry 53, 325-330.
  • Hogan, M.E., Swift, I.E. & Done, J. (1983) Urease assay and ammonia release from leaf tissues. Phytochemistry 22, 663-667.
  • Hu, L.T. & Mobley, H.L. (1993) Expression of catalytically active recombinant Helicobacter pylori urease at wild-type levels in Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 61, 2563-2569.
  • Jabri, E., Carr, M.B., Hausinger, R.P. & Karplus, P.A. (1995) The crystal structure of urease from Klebsiella aerogenes. Science 268, 998-1004.
  • Karmali, A. & Domingos, A. (1993) Monoclonal antibodies against urease from Canavalia ensiformis. Biochimie 75, 1001-1006.
  • Kaysner, C.A., Abeyta, C., Jr., Trost, P.A., Wetherington, J.H., Jinneman, K.C., Hill, W.E. & Wekell, M.M. (1994) Urea hydrolysis can predict the potential pathogenicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated in the Pacific Northwest. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 3020-3022.
  • Krogmeier, M.J., McCarty, G.W. & Bremner, J.M. (1989) Phytotoxicity of foliar-applied urea. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 8189-8191.
  • Limami, A., Phillipson, B., Ameziane, R., Pernollet, N., Jiang, Q., Roy, R., Deleens, E., Chaumont-Bonnet, M., Gresshoff, P.M. & Hirel, B. (1999) Does root glutamine synthetase control plant biomass production in Lotus japonicus L.? Planta 209, 495-502.
  • Meyer-Bothling, L.E. & Polacco, J.C. (1987) Mutational analysis of the embryo-specific urease locus of soybean. Mol. Gen. Genet. 209, 439-444.
  • Meyer-Bothling, L.E., Polacco, J.C. & Cianzio, S.R. (1987) Pleiotropic soybean mutants defective in both urease isoenzymes. Mol. Gen. Genet. 209, 432-438.
  • Mobley, H.L. & Hausinger, R.P. (1989) Microbial ureases: Significance, regulation, and molecular characterization. Microbiol. Rev. 53, 85- 108.
  • Mobley, H.L., Island, M.D. & Hausinger, R.P. (1995) Molecular biology of microbial ureases. Microbiol. Rev. 59, 451-480.
  • Moncrief, M.B. & Hausinger, R.P. (1997) Characterization of UreG, identification of a UreD- UreF-UreG complex, and evidence suggesting that a nucleotide-binding site in UreG is required for in vivo metallocenter assembly of Klebsiella aerogenes urease. J. Bacteriol. 179, 4081-4086.
  • Mulrooney, S.B., Pankratz, H.S. & Hausinger, R.P. (1989) Regulation of gene expression and cellular localization of cloned Klebsiella aerogenes (K. pneumoniae) urease. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135, 1769-1776.
  • Pedrozo, H.A., Schwartz, Z., Dean, D.D., Wiederhold, M.L. & Boyan, B.D. (1996a) Regulation of statoconia mineralization in Aplysia californica in vitro. Connect. Tissue Res. 35, 317-323.
  • Pedrozo, H.A., Schwartz, Z., Luther, M., Dean, D.D., Boyan, B.D. & Wiederhold, M.L. (1996b) A mechanism of adaptation to hypergravity in the statocyst of Aplysia californica. Hear Res. 102, 51-62.
  • Polacco, J.C. & Holland, M.A. (1993) Roles of urease in plant cells; in International Review of Cytology (Jeon, K.W. & Jarvik, J., eds.) vol. 145, pp. 65-103, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego.
  • Polacco, J.C. & Holland, M.A. (1994) Genetic control of plant ureases; in Genetic Engineering (Setlow, J.K., ed.) vol. 16, pp. 33-48, Plenum Press, New York.
  • Riddles, P.W., Whan, V., Blakeley, R.L. & Zerner, B. (1991) Cloning and sequencing of a jack bean urease-encoding cDNA. Gene 108, 265- 267.
  • Stitt, M. (1999) Nitrate regulation of metabolism and growth. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 2, 178- 186.
  • Takishima, K., Suga, T. & Mamiya, G. (1988) The structure of jack bean urease. The complete amino acid sequence, limited proteolysis and reactive cysteine residues. Eur. J. Biochem. 175, 151-165.
  • Tange, Y. & Niwa, O. (1997) Identification of the ure1+ gene encoding urease in fission yeast. Curr. Genet. 32, 244-246.
  • Torisky, R.S., Griffin, J.D., Yenofsky, R.L. & Polacco, J.C. (1994) A single gene (Eu4) encodes the tissue-ubiquitous urease of soybean. Mol. Gen. Genet. 242, 404-414.
  • Wiren, N., Gazzarrini, S., Gojon, A. & Frommer, W.B. (2000) The molecular physiology of ammonium uptake and retrieval. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 3, 254-261.
  • Yu, J.J., Smithson, S.L., Thomas, P.W., Kirkland, T.N. & Cole, G.T. (1997) Isolation and characterization of the urease gene (URE) from the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides immitis. Gene 198, 387-391.
  • Zonia, L.E., Stebbins, N.E. & Polacco, J.C. (1995) Essential role of urease in germination of nitrogen-limited Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. Plant Physiol. 107, 1097-1103.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.