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2000 | 47 | 4 | 1147-1157
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Ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increase the generation of vascular endothelial growth factor in vascular smooth muscle cells and in macrophages.

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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-γ (PPARγ) are ligand-inducible transcription factors of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. We examined the effect of PPARγ activation on the generation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the major angiogenic agents. Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and murine macrophages RAW264.7 were incubated for 24 h with PPARγ activators: prostaglandin J2 and ciglitazone. PPARγ were expressed in VSMC and RAW cells and their activity was upregulated in the presence of PGJ2 and ciglitazone. Incubation of the cells with PPARγ activators significantly augmented the release of VEGF protein into the media, both in resting and in IL-1β- or LPS-stimulated cultures. The higher protein generation was connected with the increased expression of mRNA and transcriptional activation of VEGF promoter. We conclude that the activation of PPARγ upregulates the generation of VEGF and may be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.
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