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2000 | 47 | 3 | 705-723
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Regulation of Ca2+ release from internal stores in cardiac and skeletal muscles.

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It is widely accepted that Ca2+ is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum by a specialized type of calcium channel, i.e., ryanodine receptor, by the process of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. This process is triggered mainly by dihydropyridine receptors, i.e., L-type (long lasting) calcium channels, directly or indirectly interacting with ryanodine receptor. In addition, multiple endogenous and exogenous compounds were found to modulate the activity of both types of calcium channels, ryanodine and dihydropyridine receptors. These compounds, by changing the Ca2+ transport activity of these channels, are able to influence intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. As a result not only the overall Ca2+ concentration becomes affected but also spatial distribution of this ion in the cell. In cardiac and skeletal muscles the release of Ca2+ from internal stores is triggered by the same transport proteins, although by their specific isoforms. Concomitantly, heart and skeletal muscle specific regulatory mechanisms are different.
Physical description
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