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Physical properties of lipid bilayer membranes: relevance to membrane biological functions.

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Over the last 25 years one of us (WKS) has been investigating physical properties of lipid bilayer membranes. In 1991 a group led by WKS was organized into the Laboratory of Structure and Dynamics of Biological Membranes, the effective member of which is AW. Using mainly the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-labeling method, we obtained unexpected results, which are significant for the better understanding of the functioning of biological membranes. We have developed a new pulse EPR spin-labeling method for the detection of membrane domains and evaluation of lipid exchange rates. This review will be focused on our main results which can be summarized as follows: (1) Unsaturation of alkyl chains greatly reduces the ordering and rigidifying effects of cholesterol although the unsaturation alone gives only minor fluidizing effects, as observed by order and reorientational motion, and rather significant rigidifying effects, as observed by translational motion of probe molecules; (2) Fluid-phase model membranes and cell plasma membranes are not barriers to oxygen and nitric oxide transport; (3) Polar carotenoids can regulate membrane fluidity in a way similar to cholesterol; (4) Formation of effective hydrophobic barriers to the permeation of small polar molecules across membranes requires alkyl chain unsaturation and/or the presence of cholesterol; (5) Fluid-phase micro-immiscibility takes place in cis-unsaturated phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol membranes and induces the formation of cholesterol-rich domains; (6) In membranes containing high concentrations of transmembrane proteins a new lipid domain is formed, with lipids trapped within aggregates of proteins, in which the lipid dynamics is diminished to the level of gel-phase.
Physical description
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