Radiocarbon chronometry holds a special place among the many discoveries made in the field of applied nuclear research. Few discoveries in fact, even among those being honored with the Nobel Prize, have had such a powerful and lasting impact on the further development of science. This method, as well as many other complex research methods, which appear to constitute an independent scientific discipline, arose as a result of many years of work by a team of several scientists. However, the actual founder of radiocarbon chronometry was one man, Willard Frank Libby, honored for his contribution with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1960. In Poland, the creative activity in this area was begun in the late 1940s by Włodzimierz Mościcki, who continued it in the last 10 years of his life in the Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, where he founded the Gliwice Radiocarbon Laboratory.