Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2012 | 19 | 3 | 190-195

Article title

Selected Cognitive And Emotional Resources Of Untrained Youth And Young Wrestlers


Title variants

Languages of publication



Introduction. Wrestling is a sport that requires proper physical and mental preparation. The authors present selected psychological resources, emotional intelligence and creative attitude, as factors influencing the broadly defined mastery, both in the area of sport and out of it. These variables guarantee better adaptation to changing conditions and they are also connected with the effectiveness of handling different situations and optimal problem solving. The aim of the study was to diagnose emotional intelligence and creative attitude among young female and male wrestlers. Material and methods. The study included 20 females from the regional team of cadets and juniors and 19 male wrestlers from the sports school. The control group consisted of two deliberately selected groups of untrained students - 20 girls and 19 boys. KANH and INTE questionnaires were used in the study. Results. In the three groups under investigation medium levels of emotional intelligence and creative vs. reproductive attitude were observed. It was only female wrestlers who manifested low levels of emotional intelligence which, similar to the levels of nonconformity, heuristic thinking and creative attitude, were lower than in female students from the control group. The female wrestlers demonstrated higher levels of conformity and reproductive attitude. Female students demonstrated higher levels of emotional intelligence and conformity than male students. No differences between male and female wrestlers were observed. Conclusions. The findings show that it is necessary to conduct longitudinal research on athletes and untrained individuals. Bearing in mind that learning a motoric task depends, inter alia, on intellectual and emotional factors, the authors also recommend another course of research, i.e. the verification of how these variables are related to the effectiveness of learning motoric tasks. The authors' own research results as well as further (planned) investigations will make it possible to profile various educational effects and deliberately strengthen the potential of young wrestlers.









Physical description


1 - 09 - 2012
19 - 04 - 2013


  • The Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Biała Podlaska, Department of Psychology, tel.: +48 83 3428779, fax: +48 83 3428800
  • The Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Biała Podlaska, Department of Sports Theory


  • 1. Nęcka, E. (2000). Creativity. In J. Strelau (Ed.). Psychology. Academic loxtbook Vol.II (pp., 783-807). Gdańsk: GWP. [in Polish)
  • 2. Nęcka, E. (2002). Psychology' of creativity. Gdańsk: GWP. [in Polish]
  • 3. Tahereh, R. & Mahnoush S. (2012). Creativity. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 6(2), 25-28.
  • 4. Cudowska, A. (2004). The formation of creative attitude in the process of education. Białystok: Trans Humana, [in Pol- ish]
  • 5. Popok, S. (2000). Creative Behaviour Questionnaire - KANH. Lublin: UMCS. [in Polish]
  • 6. Popek, S., Bernacka E. & Lickiewicz J. (2005). Creative Be- haviour Questionnaire KANH III as a method of diagnosing creative attitude of a manager. Education of economists and managers (pp. 1, 35-48). Warszawa: SGH. [in Polish]
  • 7. Nusbaum, E. & Silvia P. (2011). Are intelligence and creativity really so different? Fluid intelligence, executive processes, and strategy use in divergent thinking. Intelli- gence 39(1), 36-45.
  • 8. Goleman, D. (1997). Emotional intelligence. Poznań: Media Rodzina, [in Polish]
  • 9. Jaworowska, A. & Matczak A. (2001). Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. Textbook. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psy- chologicznych PTP [in Polish]
  • 10. Salovey, P. & Sluyter D. (Eds.) (1999). Emotional devel- opment vs. emotional intelligence. Educational problems. Poznań: Dom Wydawniczy Rebis. [in Polish]
  • 11. Bar-on, R. (1999). The emotional question inventory (EQ-I). A measure of emotional intelligence. Toronto, Canada: Multi- health systems. Handbook of emotional intelligence. San Fhmcisco, USA: Jossey- Bass.
  • 12. Chan, J.T. & Mallett C.J. (2011). The Value of Emotional Intelligence for High Performance Coaching. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching 6(3), 315-328.
  • 13. Afkhami, E., Shirmohammadzadeh M., Moghaddam J.B., Aghdam J.K. & Salehian M.H. (2012). Emotional Intelligence and Coaching Efficacy in Female Coaches. Annals of Biolog- ical Research 3(3), 1236-1241.
  • 14. Rutkowska, K. & Gierczuk D. (2012). Emotional intelligence and the sense of efficiency of coaching and instructing in wrestling. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism 19(1), 46-57.
  • 15. Petrov, R. (1987). Freestyle and Greco-roman wrestling. Lau- sanne, Switzerland: KILA.
  • 16. Hendrix, B. (1996). Wrestle to Win. Marietta, GA, USA: High Performance Athletics.
  • 17. Petitpas, A., Champagne 13., Chartrand J., Danish S. & Mur- phy S. (1997). Athlete’s guide to career planning. Keys to success from the playing field to professional life. Cham- paign, Human Kinetics.
  • 18. Payette, M. (1992). Women's wrestling. Canadian Wrestler 13,3-5.
  • 19. Allen, L. (2000). Girls wrestling, where is it going? Wrestling USA 35,26-28.
  • 20. Popke, M. (2004). Welcome mat: the Olympic debut of women’s wrestling could jump-start the sport at the prep level. Athletic business 28, 30-33.
  • 21. Shi, H. & Ma Z. (2007). Research on elite female wrestlers' psychological stress control before competitions. Journal of Beijing University of Physical Education 30,1049-1050.
  • 22. Erez, M. & Nouri R. (2010). Creativity: the influence of cul- tural, social, and work contexts. Management and Organi- zation Review 6(3), 351-270.
  • 23. Pięta, J. (2008). Pedagogy of Spare Time. Warszawa: WSE. [in Polish]
  • 24. Gino, F & Ariely D. (2012). The dark side of creativity: original thinkers can be more dishonest. Journal of Person- ality and Social Psychology 102(3), 445-459.[WoS]
  • 25. Kudryavtsev, V. (2011). The phenomenon of child creativity. International Journal of Early Years Education 19(1),45-53.
  • 26. Subotnik, R., Edmiston A., Cook L. & Ross M. (2010). Mentoring for talent development, creativity, social skills, and insider knowledge: The APA Catalyst Program. Journal of Advanced Academics 21(4), 714-739.
  • 27. Mikołajczyk, M. (2003). Does sport have to have a gender? In J. Kłodecka-Różalska (Ed.) Sportswoman - a woman of success. Advantages and obstacles in women's sports activity (pp. 24-42). Warszawa: PSSK, IS. (in Polish)
  • 28. Pospiszyl, K. (1993). Is a lady afraid of success? TYening 4, 83-89. [in Polish]
  • 29. Petryński, W. & Feigenberg J.M. (2009). Emotional factors in motoric control in humans. Antropomotoryka 47, 77-86.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.