Perception of Risks Associated with the Doping Use Among the Competitors Practicing Individual and Group Sport Disciplines
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Introduction. The aim of this study was the research among athletes whether and to what extent the sport discipline practiced (individual or team competition) influences the perception of risk associated with the use of doping in sport, and whether age and experience translates into the sports perception of the risks of doping. Material and methods. Three groups of athletes diverse was studied because of the nature of the sport task and the experience/time of practice. Individual disciplines were represented by combat sports (n=12, average time of practice ~6 years), group games by football players (n=9, average time of practice ~7 years) and volleyball players (n=13, average time of practice ~14 years.) The technique "Perception of risk of doping" was used to measure: a) the ranking of values that one can afford to lose in consequences of doping; b) the real probability of losing cherished values; c) personally acceptable level of risk associated with loss of value. Results. It was shown that young players who are members of the team are less mature and aware of the risks associated with the use of doping, not only from their older colleagues in the team, but also from their peers, competing individually. In the perception of young players there were both errors in risk assessment (distortion of losses) as well as illusions relating to the control of hazards, and unrealistic optimism about the possibility of avoiding the negative effects of doping. For mature players, the fear of losing public image has proven to be a strong deterrent against the temptation to use of illegal drugs; for young players, a relatively stronger remedy was the fear of losing the attributes of health and physical attractiveness. Conclusion. Due to the small size of the groups, these findings are suggestions that may serve as an inspiration for research on the wider population.
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