Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2011 | 32 | 3 | 175-184

Article title

Modelling of nitrogen oxides formation applying dimensional analysis


Title variants

Languages of publication



The article presents the procedure for how to establish a mathematical model of nitrogen oxides formation based on the theory of dimensional analysis. The model is based on selected physical quantities (parameters) measurable during regular operation of a heat generation plant. The objective of using dimensional analysis to describe nitrogen oxides formation is to show that between operating parameters of the combustion equipment and the NOx formation there is a significant correlation.The obtained results, which are further described in this article, have proved this fact. The obtained formula expressing nitrogen oxides formation, based on dimensional analysis, applies universally to any boiler fuelled by coal, gas or biomass. However, it is necessary to find C, m, n constants for the formula by experiment, individually for each type of boiler and used fuel. The experiment is based on on-line measurements of selected operational parameters for a given boiler, combusting a certain type of fuel with its actual moisture content and calorific value. The methodology, described in this article, helps to find relationships between the operational parameters and the formation of NOx emissions for a particular furnace. The developed mathematical model has been validated with boilers fuelled by black coal and biomass. Both the results obtained from direct measurements of NOx in both types of boilers, and the results obtained by calculation using equation based on the dimensional analysis, are in a very good accord. When burning coal, the variation between NOx expression from the model and the on-line measurements ranges between -12.23 % and + 9.92 %, and for burning biomass between -0.54 % and 0.48 %.The intention of the authors is to inform the professional community about the suitability of the dimensional analysis to describe any phenomena for which there is currently no exact mathematical formulation based on differential equations or empirical formulas. Many other examples of dimensional analysis applications in practice may be found in the work of Čarnogurská and Příhoda (2011).









Physical description


1 - 9 - 2011
14 - 7 - 2011


  • Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovakia
  • Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Department of Thermal Engineering, VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic
  • Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovakia


  • Čarnogurská, M., Příhoda, M., 2011. Application of the dimensional analysis in modeling of phenomena in the area of energy, Košice, Vienala s. r. o., 26-42 (In Slovak).
  • Čarnogurská, M., 1998. Dimensional analysis and the theory of similarity and modeling in the practice. Košice, Elfa, s. r. o., 1998, 15-24 (In Slovak).
  • Dzurenda L., 2003. Low-temperature formation of nitrogen oxides in the combustion process of wet wood in fire places heat generators. Acta Mech. Slovaca, 3, 207-212 (In Slovak).
  • Fan W., Lin Z., Li Y., Li Y., 2010. Effect of temperature on NO release during the combustion of coals with different ranks. Energy Fuels, 24, 1573-1583. DOI:10.1021/ef901198j.[Crossref]
  • Horbaj P., 2004. Ecological aspects of combustion. TU of Košice, Košice, 39, (In Slovak).
  • Ibler Z., Karták J., 1990. Model calculations of emissions of NOx in the combustion of fossil fuels. Energetika, 40, 9/10, 346-349 (in Czech).
  • Jandačka J., Malcho M., 2007. Biomass as an energy source. Juraj Štefuň - GEORG, Žilina, 31-38, (In Slovak).
  • Kim J. P., Schnell U., Scheffknecht G., Benim A.C., 2007. Numerical modeling of MILD combustion for coal. Prog. Comp. Fluid Dyn., 7, 6, 337-346.
  • Klika Z., Kasterko R., Bartoňová L., Kolat P., Čech B., 2010. Waste wood combustion and co-combustion with lignite a fluidized - bed power station. Chem. Process Eng., 31, 273-287.
  • Muzio L.J., Quartucy G.C., 1997. Implementing NOx control: Research to application. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 23, 233-266. PII: SO360-12&5(a7)00002-6.
  • Rédr M., Příhoda M., 1991. Basics of thermal engineering. SNTL, Prague, Czech Republic, 107, (in Czech).
  • Rong H., Toshiyuki S., Makoto T., Tetsuya H., Junichi S., 2004. Analysis of low NO emission in high temperature air combustion for pulverized coal. Fuel, 83, 9, 1133-1141.
  • Xu M., Azevedo, J.L.T., Carvalho, M.G., 2000. Modelling of the combustion process and NOx emission in a utility boiler. Fuel, 79, 13, 1611-1619.
  • Zeldovič J.B., 1947, Oxidation of nitrogen in the combustion. AN, Moskva, 1947, 77-79 (in Russian).
  • Zeldovič J.B., Barenblatt, G.I., Librovič V.B., Machviladze G.M., 1980. Mathematical theory of combustion and explosion. Nauka, Moscow, 31-35 (in Russian).
  • Zhu J., Lu Q., Niu T., Song G., Yongjie N., 2009. NO emission on pulverized coal combustion in high temperature air from circulating fluidized bed - an experimental study. Fuel Process. Technol., 90, 5, 664-670.[WoS]

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.