Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2011 | 52 | 1 | 22-32

Article title

Major College Basketball in the United States: Morality, Amateurism, and Hypocrisies


Title variants

Languages of publication



The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and member institutions' presentation of major college basketball in the United States as an endeavor of amateurism is contradictory to the realities of college basketball. Discussed are the following amateurism related hypocrisies: a) requiring players to fully engage in formally structured basketball activities as a priority over education, b) expansion of the post season March Madness tournament regardless of the fact that players will miss more classes, c) compensating basketball coaches with salaries contingent on success defined by winning, and d) the athletic scholarship. Literature supports amateurism hypocrisies in major college basketball (Bermuda 2010, Colombo 2010, Sundram 2010). Understanding the effect of NCAA and member institution hypocritical behavior on determining the moral standing of major college basketball is discussed in the context of claims by Grant (1997), that Machiavelli recognized the necessity of political hypocrisy. A utilitarian analysis using Jeremy Bentham's holistic utilitarian approach calling for the agent to "sum up all the values of all the pleasures on the one side, and those of all the pains on the other" (p. 39) to determine the degree of morality, indicates a presence of morality in major college basketball. Under the premise that major college basketball is an extension of core values held by higher education, Aristotle's Golden Mean (Aristotle, 1941) is used to help identify a point of balanced moral perspective concerning sentiments of the sporting community held for the sport. The end goal is to maintain major college basketball's strong level of satisfaction among members of the sporting community, while controlling the false representation of amateurism surrounding it to preserve the moral and structural integrity of major college basketball.










Physical description


1 - 10 - 2011
31 - 10 - 2011


  • The College at Brockport, State University of New York, USA


  • amateur. (n.d.a). Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from Dictionary.com website:
  • amateur. (n.d.b). Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary. Retrieved from
  • Aristotle (1941). Nicomachean ethics, Book II (W. D. Ross, Trans.). In R. McKeon (Ed.), The basic works of Aristotle (pp. 927-1112). New York: Random House.
  • Bentham, J. (1789/1961). An introduction to the principles of morals and legislation. In Utilitarianism (pp. 7-398). Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
  • Bermuda, B. (2010, January 25). John Calipari: college basketball's very own hypocrite. Bleacher Report. Retrieved from:
  • Bozich, R. (2010, June 11). Kansas could suffer most from shake-up. Retrieved from
  • Colombo, J. D. (2010). The NCAA, tax exemption, and college athletics. University of Illinois Law Review, 2010(1). Retrieved from: http://www.law.uiuc.edu/lrev/publications/2000s/2010/2010_1/Colombo.pdf
  • Feinstein, J. (2010, July 13). New NCAA 68-team tournament format could have been worse. Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/07/12/AR2010071204889.html?nav=emailpage&sid=ST2010071205485
  • Ferris, E., Finster, M., & McDonald, D. (2004). Academic fit of student-athletes: An analysis of NCAA Division I-A graduation rates. Research in Higher Education, 45(6), 555-575. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.[Crossref]
  • Grant, R. W. (1997). Hypocrisy and integrity: Machiavelli, Rousseau, and the ethics of politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Hill, C. R. (1996). Olympic politics: Athens to Atlanta 1896-1996 (2nd ed.). Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
  • hypocrisy. (n.d.). The Free Dictionary. Retrieved from
  • Johnson, G. (2007, June 4). Extra game boosts basketball attendance to new levels. The NCAA News. Retrieved from http://fs.ncaa.org/Docs/NCAANewsArchive/2007/Association-wide/index.html
  • Knapp, L. & Sreenivasan, H. (2011, March 29). The March Madness money trail. PBS NewsHour. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/2011/03/the-march-madness-money-trail.html
  • Mill, J. S. (1863/1969). Utilitarianism. In J. M. Smith & E. Sosa (Eds.), Mill's Utilitarianism (pp. 31-88). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • National Collegiate Athletic Association (2010). 2010-11 NCAA Division I Manual. Overland Park, KS: NCAA.
  • Noverr, D. A. (1983). The games they played: sports in American history, 1865-1980. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall Inc.
  • Patel, N. (2011, March 25). March Madness: one and done. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/sportingscene/2011/03/march-madness-one-and-done.html
  • Smith, S. (2010, April 2). As NCAA coaches get paid, schools pay price. Retrieved from
  • Suggs, W. (2004). Big money in college sports flows to the few. Chronicle of Higher Education, 51(10), A46-A47. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
  • Sundram, J. J. R. (2010). The Downside of Success: How Increased Commercialism Could Cost the NCAA Its Biggest Antitrust Defense. Tulane Law Review, 85(2), 543-570. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
  • Swanson, R. A. & Spears, B. (1995). History of Sport and Physical Education in the United States. (4th ed.). Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Communications, Inc.
  • Thamel, P., & Sandomir, R. (2010, March 13). Why would the N. C. A. A. expand its tournament? It's about the money. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/ 2010/03/14/sports/ncaabasketball/14ncaa.html
  • The National Collegiate Athletic Association Revised Budget for Fiscal Year Ended August 31, 2011 (2011, February 15). Retrieved from
  • Wiebert, S. (2011, March 30). NCAA president: Time to discuss players getting sliver of revenue pie. USA Today. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/sports/college/mensbasketball/2011-03-29-ncaa-pay-for-play-final-four_N.html
  • Wieberg, S., & Berkowitz, L. (2009, April 2). NCAA, colleges pushing the envelope with sports marketing. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/sports/college/2009-04-01-marketing-cover_N.html
  • Wilbon, M. (2009, June 25). The ‘one-and-done’ song and dance. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/24/AR2009062403396.html
  • Wolverton, B. (2006). Presidents flex their muscles. Chronicle of Higher Education, 52(34), A48-A51.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.