Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2010 | 50 | 1 | 44-59

Article title

Social Exclusion/Inclusion in the Context of Hungarian Sport


Title variants

Languages of publication



Similar to international trends, this investigation of social exclusion/inclusion from sport was preceded by studying the impact of poverty on sport participation in Hungary. Research was made on inequality of chances and on the disadvantaged position of the lower classes in sport, even in state socialism. Following the transformation of the political regime in 1989-1990, there was a growing interest in exploring unequal social opportunities in sport, not only by marginal social groups, but also by the increasing number of lower middle class people dropping behind. However, Hungarian sport has never been studied in the context of social exclusion/inclusion. The objective of this paper is to approach sport in Hungary from these perspectives. Attempts are made to answer the following questions: in which fields of Hungarian sport can social exclusion be observed? How is social exclusion from sport linked to age, gender, dwelling place, socio-economic status and to the lack of cultural and social capital? How is the concept of social exclusion/inclusion understood by the actors in Hungarian sport? How can sport be used as a means to promote social inclusion for people marginalized by economic, social and cultural barriers? In order to answer the above questions, the following methods were used: analyses of recent research findings on Hungarians' sport participation with a focus on deprivation; in-depth interviews with key persons (N= 15) in Hungarian sport with the aim to discover how the concept of social exclusion/inclusion is understood by them; and analyses of documents to explore which measures have been taken by sport policy to tackle social exclusion. The results show that exclusion from sport is widespread in Hungarian society. It is linked in a combined way to poverty, education, ethnicity, age, and settlements. It is established in early childhood and lasts the whole life cycle. Key excluded groups are in hopeless situations due to economic, social and cultural aspects, so they cannot overcome this problem alone. They receive assistance in several other areas, but they are left to their own resources in sport-related issues. Legally they should have access to sport, but they cannot claim their rights. The concept of combating social exclusion is generally not incorporated into the objectives and values of sport clubs and federations; it has not yet been an integral part of sport culture in Hungary. Government documents contain declarations in connection to tackling social exclusion, but very few actions are implemented to promote social inclusion. A major conclusion of the paper is that a serious modification of sport policy does not mainly depend on the lack of financial recourses but on the lack of a strong determination of the Government. The involvement of the Hungarian population in sporting activity and the intention for their inclusion are much lower than it could be under the present economic circumstances.









Physical description


1 - 12 - 2010
23 - 12 - 2010


  • Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary


  • Anstett, M., Sachs, B. (1995). Sports, Jeunesse et logiques d'insertion. Paris: Ministere de la Jeunesse et des sports.
  • Bourdieu, P. (1978). Sport and Social Class. Social Science Information. 17, 6, 819-840.
  • Bryant, J. E., McElroy, M. (1997). Sociological Dynamic of Sport and Exercise. Englewood, Colorado: Morton Publishing Company.
  • Coalter, F (2007). Sport Clubs, Social Capital and Social Regeneration: Ill-Defined Interventions With Hard To Follow Outcomes? Sport in Society, 10, 4, 537-559.
  • Coakley, J (2007) Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies. New York: McGraw - Hill.
  • Coakley, J., Dunning, E. (Eds) (2002). Handbook of Sport Studies. London: Sage Publications.
  • Collins, F. M., Kay, T. (2003) Sport and Social Exclusion. London: Routledge.
  • Collins, M., Henry, I. P., Houlihan, B., Buller, J. (1999). Research Report: Sport and Social Exclusion. Loughborough: Loughborough University.
  • Donelly, P., Coakley, J. (2002). The Role of Recreation in Promoting Social Inclusion. Working paper series. Toronto: Laidlaw Foundation.
  • Elling, A., Claringbould, I (2005). Mechanisms of Inclusion and Exclusion in the Dutch Landscape: Who Can and Wants to Belong? Sociology of Sport Journal, 22, 4.
  • Edwards, H. (1973). Sociology of Sport. Homewood: The Dorsey Press.
  • Farkas, Z. (2010). A Magyar Szegénységellenes Hálózat jelentése a szegénységben vagy annak közelében élő gyerekes családok helyzetéről. Budapest: Magyar Szegénységellenes Hálózat Alapítvány.
  • Földesi, S. G. (1984). Magyar olimpikonok önmagukról és a sportról. Budapest: Közgazdaság és Jogi Könyvkiadó.
  • Földesi, S. G. (1999). Félamatőrök, félprofik. Magyar olimpikonok (1980-1996). Budapest: MOB.
  • Földesi, S. G. (2009). Szabadidősport - életmód - sportpolitika. Hazai és nemzetközi tendenciák. In N. Bendiner (szerk.) Útban a sportoló nemzet felé??? Budapest: NSZSZ.
  • Földesi, S. G (2010). Hungary. In M. Nicholson, R. Hoye, B. Houlihan (Eds.), Participation in Sport. International Policy Perspectives. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Földesi, S. G., Gál, A., Dóczi, T. (2010). Sportszociológia. Budapest: TF.
  • Földesi, S. G, Földesiné, Sz. Gy., Louveau, C., Metoudi, M. (1991) A sportolásra fordított idő Franciaországban és Magyarországon. A Testnevelési Egyetem közleményei, 1. melléklet. In C. Louveau, M. Metoudi, A sportolásra fordított idő Franciaországban és Magyarországon. A Testnevelési Egyetem közleményei (pp. 1-111).
  • Gál, A. (2008). A magyar lakosság egészségtudatossága és szabadidő-sportolási szokásai. In S. G. Földesi, T. Dóczi, A. Gál (szerk.), Társadalmi riport a sportról (pp. 9-40). Budapest: ÖM-MSTT.
  • Gál, A. (2003). Nők formában. In Sz. Gy. Földesiné, A. Gál (szerk.), Sport és társadalom (pp. 145-154). Budapest: MSTT.
  • Galdi, G. (1986). A szabadidősport iránt érdeklődés vizsgálata különböző tárasadalmi csoportokban egy szabadidő klub működése kapcsán. Testnevelésdoktori értekezés. Budapest: Testnevelési Főiskola.
  • Galdi, G. (2002). Fizikai aktivitás Magyarországon az ezredfordulón. Magyar Sporttudományi Szemle, 3-4, 16-18.
  • Galdi, G. (2004). Szabadidő-struktúra és fizikai reakció Magyarországon 1968-2000 között életmód-időmérleg vizsgálatok tükrében. PhD-értekezés. Budapest: Semmelweis Egyetem.
  • Gruneau, R. (1975). Sport, Social Differentiation and Social Inequality. In D. Ball, J. W. Loy (Eds), Sport and Social Order. Addison Wesley, Reading: Ma.
  • Hedi, C. (2009). A Magyar Egyetemi-Főiskolai Sportszövetség (MEFS) hozzájárulása a főiskolások-egyetemisták szabadidős sporttevékenységéhez. In N. Bendiner (szerk.), Útban a sportoló nemzet felé??? (pp. 79-84). Budapest: NSZSZ.
  • Holden, P. R., Wilde, N. (2004). Defense or Attack? Can Soccer Club Tackle social Exclusion? ISTR Sixth International Conference. Toronto, Canada, July 11-14. http://www.istr.org/conferences/toronto/workingpapers/holden.philip.pdf.
  • Houlihan, B. (2008). Sport in Society: A Student Introduction. London: Sage
  • Jarvie, G. (2003). Communitarianism, Sport and Social Capital: Neighbourly Insights into Scottish Sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, vol. 38, 139-153.
  • Jarvie, G. (2006). Sport, Culture and Society. London: Routledge.
  • Laki, L.-Makszin, I. (1984). Életkörülmények-Életmód-Életszínvonal. Sporttudomány, 4, 17-21.
  • Laki, L., Lakatos, M., Újvári, J. (1990). A magyar népesség testedzési és sportolási szokásai. A Magyar Testnevelési Egyetem közleményei, 2, 11-28.
  • Leonard II, W. M. (1988). A Sociological Perspective of Sport. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Lenoir, R. (1974). Les exlus: Un français sur dix. Paris: Le Seuil (http://www.yasni.de/person/lenoir/rene/renelenoir.htm [pdf]).
  • Loy, J. W. (1972). Social Origin and Occupational Mobility of Selected American Athletes. International Review of Sport Sociology, 7, 5-23.
  • Lüschen, G. (1969). Social stratification and Social Mobility of Young Sportsmen. In J. W. Loy, G. Kenyon, (Eds.), Sport, Culture and Society (pp. 258-276). New York: Macmillan.
  • McPherson, B. D., Curtis, J. E., Loy, J. W. (1989). The Social Significance of Sport. Champaign: Human Kinetics Publisher.
  • Persson, T. H. (2008). Social Capital and Social Responsibility in Denmark: More than Gaining Public Trust. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, vol. 43, 35-51.
  • Roberts, K. (1996). Young people, schools, sport, and government policies. Sport Education & Society, 1, 47-57.
  • Roche, M. & Annesley, C. (1998). Comparative social inclusion policy in Europe: Report 1 Contexts. Sheffield: Sheffield University.
  • Social Exclusion Unit (1998). Bringing Britain together: a national strategy for neighbourhood renewal Cm 4045. London: Stationary Office.
  • Sugden, J., Tomlinson, A. (2002). Theorizing Sport, Class and Status. In J. Coakley, E. Dunning (Eds.), Handbook of Sport Studies. London: Sage Publications.
  • Tomlinson, A. (2006). The Sport Studies Reader. London: Routledge.
  • Tornai, I. (2007). Gyermekszámlálás Javaslatok a gyermekszegénységet mérő, komplex indikátorrendszerre. Budapest: DEMOS Magyarország Alapítvány.
  • Török, O. (2009). Tájékoztató a lakosság mozgásgazdag életmódjával kapcsolatos állami szerepvállalásáról 2009-ben. In N. Bendiner (szerk.), Útban a sportoló nemzet felé??? (pp. 11-16). Budapest: NSZSZ.
  • Velenczei, A., Kovács, Á., Szabó, T., Szabó, A. (2008). Társadalmi változások a magyarországi sportutánpótlás-nevelésben egy sportegyesület tükrében. Magyar Sporttudományi Szemle, 4, 25-30.
  • Wolańska, T., Salita, J., Jung, R., Mikołajczyk, Z., Pastwa, M., Żyśko, J. (2002). Poland. Sport for All as Physical Culture and Social Value. In L. P. DaCosta & A. Miragaya (Eds.), Worldwide Experiences and Trends in Sport for All. Aachen: Meyer und Meyer Sport.
  • Wisinger, J. (2009). A sportirányítás és a fogyatékkal élők szabadidősportja. In Bendiner N. (szerk.) Útban a sportoló nemzet felé??? (pp. 61-67). Budapest: NSZSZ.
  • Internet sources:
  • Combat Poverty Agency
  • Eurofound, Social Exclusion European Commission definition on social exclusion.
  • Political Dictionary. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Copyright © 1996, 2003 by Oxford University Press.
  • Special Eurobarometer (72.2) 334 on Sport and Physical
  • Sport XXI Nemzeti Stratégia 2007-2020 (2007). Budapest: ÖTM, Sport. Szakállamtitkárság.
  • Wikipedia article "Social exclusion
  • UK Government's Social Unit

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.