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2009 | 46 | 1 | 220-228

Article title

Equal Opportunities in the Field of Sports - An Investigation of History, Environmental Factors, Facility Network and Organisational Circumstances in Cross-Country Skiing and Canoeing in Finland


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Services in the field of sports as a public service and as a voluntary-based civil initiative are developing on the grounds of national, regional history, environmental factors, and governmental policy, which then educate expert personnel, provide directly or induce indirectly finance for operation and facility construction. In this article the authors analyse whether equal opportunity exists in practising cross-country skiing or canoeing in Finland. Finland is one of the richest countries in Europe when it comes to natural space. The legislative basis to practice nature-based, outdoor recreational and competitive sports is laid down in the "Everyman's Right". Both of the examined sports have a long history in Finland. The weather and environment are more than suitable for practising either of these sports. The facility network is well developed for cross-country skiing but insufficient for canoeing. A magnitude difference to be found in the popularity of the two sports. By utilising the historical and natural resources and bettering organisational effectiveness, development has broad perspectives in canoeing.









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1 - 12 - 2009
31 - 12 - 2009


  • Department of Sport Sciences, Sports Planning and Administration, University of Jyväskylä
  • Department of Sport Sciences, University of Jyväskylä
  • Climate Service, Finnish Meteorological Institute


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