Full-text resources of PSJD and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


Preferences help
enabled [disable] Abstract
Number of results
2009 | 46 | 1 | 177-193

Article title

Violent Incidents in Greek Basketball. Referees' Perspective on the Theoretical Models of Violence


Title variants

Languages of publication



During the last 30 years a significant body of knowledge has been accumulated around the issue of hooliganism in professional soccer. However, very little has been said about violence in basketball, a sport that has the most incidents of violence after soccer and perhaps handball in Europe. Although an increasing number of violent incidents in basketball are reported in the mass media, research is limited. The sample consisted of 16 top Greek basketball referees, several of whom were distinguished even at an international level. The top referees were interviewed in a hotel prior to matches. The criteria for the choice of leading referees was based on their top refereeing experience (A1 division). Officials provide support for the notion that basketball is hostage to personal interests and is used as a means of pressure for the service of other aims. The theory for the social roots of hooliganism as well as the theory of frustration - aggression provide sufficient explanations for the interpretation of violence in basketball. Under work and family pressures young people become more aggressive and unload their disappointment in the sports ground, which they consider to be a suitable outlet.










Physical description


1 - 12 - 2009
31 - 12 - 2009


  • Department of Physical Education and Exercise Science in Serres, Aristotle's University of Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Department of Physical Education and Exercise Science in Serres, Aristotle's University of Thessaloniki, Greece


  • Altheide, D., Johnson, J. (1998). Criteria for Assessing Interpretetive Validity in Qualitative Research. In Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. (Eds.) Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. Sage Publications.
  • Armstrong, G., Harris, R. (1991). Football hooligans: theory and evidence. The Sociological Review, 39, 3, pp. 427-458.
  • Avgerinos, T. (1989). Sociology of Sport (in Greek). Thessaloniki: Salto Editions.
  • Bredemeier, B., Shields, D. (1986). Moral growth among athletes and nonathletes: a comparative analysis. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 147, 7-18.
  • Brug, H. H. van der (1994). Football hooliganism in the Netherlands. In Giulianotti R. Bonney, N. & Hepworht M. (Ed.) Football, violence and social identity. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Coakley, J. (1986). Sport in Society. Issues and Controversies (3rd edition). Saint Louis, Mosby Co, USA.
  • Cote, J., Salmela, J. (1996). The organizational tasks of high performance gymnastic coaches. The sport psychologist, 10, 261-277.
  • Davis, M., Adams, H. (1995). Theoretical models in clinical psychology. Στoυς Heiden, L. καη Hersen, M. (1995) Introduction to Clinical Psychology, New York: Plenum Press.
  • DiConsiglio, J. (2000). Foul Play. Scholastic Scope, 49, 1, 14-18.
  • Dollard, J., Doob, L. W., Miller, N. E., Mowerer, O. H. & Sears, R. R. (1939). Frustration and Aggression. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Duda, J. L., Olson, L. K., Templin, T. J. (1991). The relationship of task and ego orientation too sports manship attitudes and the perceived legitimacy of injurious acts. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 62, 79-87.
  • Dunning, E., Murphy, P., Williams, J. (1998). Violence in soccer matches: a sociological explanation (in Greek). In the book by Norbert Elias & Eric Dunning (Eds.) Sport and leisure in the civilizing process (in Greek). Dromeas, Athens Greece. First published in 1986 under the title Quest for excitement - Sport and Leisure in the civilizing process. UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Emmet, I. (1971). Youth and Leisure in an Urban sprawl. UK: Manchester University Press.
  • End, C., Kretschmar, J., Cambell, J., Mueller, D. and Dietz-Uhler, B. (2002). Sport Fans' attitudes toward war analogies as descriptors for sport. Journal of Sport Behaviour, 26, 4, 356-267.
  • Garfield, K., Mravic, M. (2000). The season of forgiveness. Sports Illustrated, 92, 13, 32-35.
  • Giulianotti, R. (1989). A critical overview of British sociological investigations into soccer hooliganism in Scotland and Britain. Working papers on football violence no 1 Department of Sociology University of Aberdeen.
  • Glaser, B., Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Aldine de Gruyter, New York, USA.
  • Guilbert, S. (2004). Sport and violence. A typological analysis. International Review for the sociology of sport, 39, 1, 45-55.
  • Henwood, K., Pidgeon, N. (1997). Qualitative research and psychological theorizing. British Journal of Psychology, 83, 97-111.
  • Jones, S. (1985). The analysis of depth interviews. In R. Walker (Ed.) Applied Qualitative Research. England.
  • Jones, I. (1997). Mixing qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Sports Fan Research. The Qualitative Report, 3, 4. Also at
  • Kavoussanu, M. and Ntoumanis, N. (2003). Participation in sport and moral functioning: Does ego orientation mediate their relationship? Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 25, 1-18.
  • Kavoussanu, M., Roberts, G. C. (2001). Moral functioning in sport: an achievement goal perspective. Journal of sport and Exercise Psychology, 23, 37-54.
  • King, A (1999). Football hooliganism and the practical paradigm Sociology of Sport Journal, 16, 3, 269-273.
  • King, A. (1997). The post modernity of football hooliganism. British Journal of Sociology, 48, 4, 576-593.[Crossref]
  • Kourakis, N. (1988). Report on the incidence of violence at Greek sports stadiums. Results of seven more specific research studies and general conclusions. Informal Meeting of European Ministers of Sport. Athens.
  • Lappas, K. (2005). Changes in the socio-economic and demographic composition of Greek football spectators. European Journal for Sport and Society, 2, 2, 109-120.
  • Lapchick (1986). Fractured focus. Sport as a reflection of society. USA and Canada: Lexington Books.
  • Lorenz, K. (1966). On aggression. NY: Harcourt, Brace and World.
  • Loy, J. (1970). The study of sport and social mobility. In Sage, G. (Ed.) Sport and American society. Selected Readings. Adison-Wesley Publishing Company.
  • Luschen, G. (1971). Social stratification and social mobility among young German sportsmen. In Dunning, E. (Ed.) The Sociology of sport. London: Frank Cass.
  • May, R. (2001). The sticky situation of sportsmanaship: Contexts and contradictions in Sportsmanship among high school boys basketball players. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 25, 4, 372-389.
  • McPherson, B., Curtis, J. and Loy, J. (1989). The social significance of sport. An introduction to the Sociology of Sport. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Books.
  • Miller, T. (1997). Violence in Sports. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 21, 3, 235-239.
  • Papadopoulou, D., Markoulis, D. (1986). Positive and negative aspects of social behaviour. Thessaloniki: Kiriakidis Editions.
  • Papageorgiou, D. (1998). Another Sunday: Madness and illness in Greek football pitches. Thessaloniki, Paratiritis, Greece.
  • Piperopoulos, G. (1988). The anatomy of violence. Physical Education and Sport, 24, 50-58.
  • Podaliri C., Balesti C. (1998). The ultras, racism and football culture in Italy. In Brown, A. (Ed.) Fanatics! Power, Identity and Fandom in Football. London: Routledge.
  • Proios, M., Doganis G. (2003). Experiences from active membership and participation in decision making processes and age in moral reasoning and goal orientation of referees. Perceptual and motor skills, 96, 113-126.
  • Proios, M., Doganis G. and Athanailidis (2004). Moral development and form of participation, type of sport and sport experience. Perceptual and motor skills, 99, 633-642.
  • Puig, N., Morrell, S. (1996). Relating the method: Use of the itinerary concept in the analysis of sport biographies. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 31, 4, 439-454.
  • Rainey, D., Duggan, P. (1998). Assaults on basketball referees. A statewide survey. Journal of Sport Behaviour, 21, 1, 113-120.
  • Reilly, T. (1996). Science and Soccer. London: E&FN Spon.
  • Robson, C (1993). Real World Research. A resource for social scientists and practitioner researchers. UK: Blackwell publications.
  • Smith, D., Stewart, S. (2002). Sexual aggression and sports participation. Journal of Sport Behaviour, 26, 4, 384-395.
  • Smith, M. (1986). Sports violence: A definition. In Lapchick R. (Ed.) Fractured Focus. Sport as a reflection of society. USA and Canada: Lexington Books.
  • Sneider and Eitzen (1986). The structure of sport and participant violence. In Lapchick, R. (Ed.) Fractured Focus. Sport as a reflection of society. Massachusetts, USA: Lexington Books.
  • Sparkes, A. (1998). Validity in qualitative inquiry and the problem of criteria: Implications for Sport Psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 363-386.
  • Stuart, M., Ebbeck, V. (1995). The influence of perceived social approval on moral functioning in youth sport. Pediatric Exercise Science, 7, 27-0-280.
  • Taylor, I. (1982). Class, violence and sport: The case of Soccer Hooliganism in Britain, 39-98. In Cantelon H. & Gruneau R. (Eds.) Sport culture and the modern state. Canada: University of Toronto Press.
  • Terry, P. C., Jackson, J. J. (1985). The determinants and control of violence in sport. Quest, 37, 27-33.[Crossref]
  • Whitson, D. (1976). Method in sport sociology. The potential of a phenomenological contribution. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 4, 11, 53-68.
  • Wilson, B. (1997). Good blacks and bad blacks. Media constructions of African-American Athletes in Canadian Basketball. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 32, 2,177-189.
  • Wilson, T. (2002). The paradox of social class and sports involvement. The roles of cultural and economic capital. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 37, 1, 5-16.
  • Young, K. (1999). Crime scenes: Sports violence and the criminal law. Invited paper presented at the 7th International Congress on Physical Education and Sport, Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini, Greece.
  • Young, K. (1991). Sport and Collective Violence. In Hollosry. J. (Ed.) Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. American College of Sport Medicine Series. Volume 19, UK: Williams and Wilkins Baltimore.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.