Aerobic and Anaerobic Endurance of Disabled Swimmers in Special Preparation Sub-Period
Languages of publication
Background: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether, in addition to an expected increasein anaerobic endurance, aerobic endurance of disabled swimmers would alsoimprove in a special preparation sub-period. Furthermore, decision was made to examinewhether the applied tests prove sufficiently sensitive for swimmers with disabilitiesas well.Material/Methods: The study included 12 disabled swimmers from a section of the Polish Sports Associationfor the Disabled “START” Wroclaw. Two standardized tests were used. The T-30 test was used to evaluate aerobic endurance and the 6x50 m test was applied toestimate anaerobic endurance. For all analyzed parameters the median, first (Q1)and third (Q3) quartiles were calculated. To determine the significance of differencesbetween the results obtained in the preliminary and the control test, the nonparametricWilcoxon test for dependent samples was used. Statistical significance was consideredat p ≤ 0.05.Results: Total distance median in the T-30 test (DST1 = 1575.5 m vs DST2 = 1650 m) improvedin a statistically significant way (p = 0.02). Analyzing the results obtained inthe entire group of athletes in the 6x50 m test, for each single section of 50 m, it wasobserved that the swimming time was significantly shorter during the second study(p < 0.05) but the first section of 50 meters.Conclusions: In a sub-period of special preparation both aerobic and anaerobic endurance of disabledswimmers improved. A more significant improvement was observed in termsof anaerobic endurance, as it occurred for all swimmers. The T-30 and 6x50 m testsproved to be a sensitive tool for assessing aerobic and anaerobic endurance ofswimmers with disabilities.
1 - 12 - 2012
28 - 12 - 2012
- University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Poland, email@example.com
- University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Poland
- University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Poland
- The Angelus Silesius State School of Higher Vocational Education in Walbrzych, Poland
- 1. Banister EW. Modeling elite athletic performance. In: MacDougall JD, Wenger HA, Green HJ, editors. Physiological testing of the high-performance athlete. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics Books; 1991, 403-424.
- 2. Barden JM, Kell RT. Relationships between stroke parameters and critical swimming speed in a sprint interval training set. J Sports Sci 2009;27(3):227-235.[WoS][Crossref]
- 3. Zamparo P, Capelli C, Cautero M, Di Nino A. Energy cost of front crawl swimming at supramaximal speeds and underwater torque in young swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol 2000;83:487-491.[Crossref]
- 4. Zamparo P, Capelli C, Pendergast D. Energetics of swimming: a historical perspective. Eur J ApplPhysiol 2011;111:367-378.
- 5. di Prampero PE. Factors limiting maximal performance in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003;90:420-429.[PubMed]
- 6. Wakayoshi K, D’Acquisto LJ, Troup JP. Relationship between metabolic parameters and stroking technique in front crawl. In: Strass D, Trappe SW, Cappaert JM, Trappe TA, editors. VII InternationalSymposium on Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming, Atlanta, 18-23.10.1994. London: E&FN Spon; 1996, 152-158.
- 7. Pheasey C. Sport science and medicine support for British Paralympic swimmers. SportEX Med 2005;25:6-9.
- 8. Bompa T, Haff G. Periodization. Theory and methodology of training. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics; 2009.
- 9. Maglischo EW. Swimming fastest. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics; 2003.
- 10. Costill DL. Effects of repeated days of intensified training on muscle glycogen and swimming performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;20:249-254.
- 11. Jeffrey J, Bauerle J. Benefits of balanced training. Swim Tech 2004;41:10.
- 12. Draper J, Minikin B, Telford R. Specific Guidelines for the Physiological Assessment of the Elite Athlete. Test Methods Manual. Belconnen: Australian National Sports Research Centre; 1998.
- 13. Pyne D. Monitoring seasonal and long term changes in test and competitive performance elite swimmers. Australian Coaches Swimming Association; 2006.
- 14. McCann C. Sports for the disabled: the evolution from rehabilitation to competitive sport. Br J SportsMed 1996;30:279-280.
- 15. Daly D, Djobova S, Malone L, Vanlandewijck Y, Steadward R. Swimming Speed Patterns and Stroking Variables in the Paralympic 100-m Freestyle. Adapt Phys Act Q 2003;20:260-278.
- 16. Burkett B, Mellifont R. Sport Science and Coaching in Paralympic Swimming. Int J Sports Sci Coach 2008;3(1);105-112.[Crossref][WoS]
- 17. Daly D, Malone L, Smith DJ, Vanlandewijck Y, Steadward R. The Contribution of Starting, Turning, and Finishing to Total Race Performance in Male Paralympic Swimmers. Adapt Phys Act Q 2001;18:316-333.
- 18. Satkunskiene D, Schega L, Kunze K, Birzinyte K, Daly D. Coordination in Arm Movements During Crawl Stroke in Elite Swimmers with a Loco-Motor Disability. Hum Movement Sci 2005;24:54-65.[Crossref]
- 19. Toussaint HM, Hollander AP. Energetics of Competitive Swimming: Implications for training Programmes. Sport Med 1994;18(6):384-405.[Crossref]
- 20. Costill DL, Fielding RA, Fink WJ, King DS, Hargreaves M, Kovaleski JE. Effect of carbohydrate feeding frequencies and dosage on muscle glycogen use during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1985;17(4):456-472.
- 21. Deminice R, Papoti M, Zagatto AM. Prado MV. Validity of 30 minutes test (T-30) in aerobic capacity, stroke parameters and aerobic performance determination of trained swimmers. Rev Bras Med Esporte 2007;13(3):173-176.
- 22. Olbrecht J, Mader A. The relationship to lactic acid to long-distance swimming and the 2 x 400 m 2- speed test and the implication for adjusting training intensities. In: Swimming Science V; Human Kinetics 1988, 261-267.
- 23. Sanders RH. New analysis procedures of giving feedback to swimming coaches and swimmers. In: XXInternationals Symposium on Biomechanics in Sport-Swimming, University of Extramedura, Spain; 2002, 1-14.
- 24. Smith DJ. Performance evaluation of swimmers: scientific tools. Sports Med 2002;32:539-554.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 25. Aspenes S, Kjendlie PL, Hoff J, Helgerud J. Combined strength and endurance training in competitive swimmers. J Sports Sci Med 2009;8:357-365.[PubMed]
- 26. Faude O, Meyer T, Scharhag J, Weins F, Urhausen A, Kindermann W. Volume vs. intensity in the training of competitive swimmers. Int J Sports Med 2008;29:906-912.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 27. Garatachea N, Abadía O, García-Isla FJ, Sarasa FJ, Bresciani G, González-Gallego J, De Paz JA. Determination and validity of critical swimming velocity in elite physically disabled swimmers. Disabil Rehabil 2006;28(24):1551-1556.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 28. Seifert L, Boulestelx L, Carter M, Chollet D. The spatial-temporal and coordinative structures in elite male 100-m front crawl swimmers. Int J Sports Med 2005;26:286-293.[Crossref]
- 29. Fulton SK, Pyne DB, Burkett B. Quantifying freestyle kick-count and kick-rate patterns in Paralympic swimming. J Sports Sci 2009;27(13):1455-1461.[Crossref][PubMed][WoS]
- 30. Figueiredo P, Zamparo P, Sousa A, Vilas-Boas JP, Fernandes RJ. An energy balance of the 200 m front crawl race. Eur J Appl Physiol 2011;111:767-777.
Publication order reference